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Mark Dottori, Guy Faulkner, Ryan Rhodes, Norm O’Reilly, Leigh Vanderloo and Gashaw Abeza

agents to reach their target audience and communicate their messages ( Spence et al., 2018 ). ParticipACTION’s communication campaigns aim to increase awareness and knowledge and influence attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors about physical activity as a vital part of everyday life ( Edwards, 2004

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Jeeyoon Kim and Jeffrey D. James

limited, due to lack of empirical studies and inconsistent findings ( Jang, Ko, Wann, & Kim, 2017 ). Also, we have limited understanding of the long-term SWB effects of the two activities, as SWB studies have been focused on short-term SWB ( Mochon, Norton, & Ariely, 2008 ). Addressing such limitations is

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Nancy Barber and Mark E. Havitz

Howard (1992) examined U.S. adult participation in six sport and fitness activities for the period 1980 to 1989. This study extended Howard's research in a Canadian context for 10 sport and fitness activities for the period 1987 to 1996 using data from Print Measurement Bureau (PMB). Participation rates declined for 7 of the 10 activities over the 10-year period. Consistent with Howard's conclusions, usage-rate segmentation demonstrated that very small percentages of the Canadian adult population account for a large majority of total participation. Also consistent, 1996 participation rates split by gender revealed that women exhibit less participation, measured as percentages of all participants and among avid participants, as compared with 1987. Extending Howard's work, segmentation of participants based on age suggested that the older population in 1996 participated more than did the older population in 1987. Marketing implications, especially for reaching sedentary unresponsive markets, are discussed.

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Dennis R. Howard

The extent to which American adults reported participating in selected sport and fitness activities over the past decade was examined. Data were obtained from Simmons Market Research Bureau, Inc., which produces annually the largest and most representative measure of adult sport, recreation, and fitness participation in the United States. Despite optimistic projections for sustained growth in participation rates by sport and fitness industry representatives, trend analysis revealed that participation in all but one of the activities examined had declined substantially. For each of the sport and fitness activities analyzed, active participation was confined to a very small percentage of the total adult population. Participants were divided into three segments (light, medium, and heavy) based on the frequency of their participation. Segment analysis supported the core/fringe concept—a small, active core of heavy users accounted for the majority of total participation volume, particularly in sport activities. Analysis of gender differences found female representation as a proportion of total participation declined substantially over the decade in racquetball, tennis, and jogging. Implications for professional practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.

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Diane L. Gill, Ronald G. Morrow, Karen E. Collins, Allison B. Lucey and Allison M. Schultz

This study focused on attitudes and sexual prejudice as part of a larger project on inclusive practice in sport and physical activity settings. Questionnaires were administered to a large sample of undergraduate students and to selected samples of upper-level preprofessional students and a campus pride group to investigate attitudes toward gays and lesbians, and other minority groups. Attitude scores were in the middle range, with females more positive than males toward gay men. Evaluation Thermometer scores were generally positive, but markedly lower for gay men and lesbians than for other minority groups. Upper-level preprofessional students were more positive than other undergraduates, but still expressed negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. These results confirm persistent sexual prejudice, suggest that attention to sexual minorities is particularly important for effective diversity management, and underscore the need for continuing research and educational programs to enhance cultural competence among sport management professionals and future professionals.

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P. Chelladurai

A classification of sport and physical activity services based on two dimensions is presented. The first dimension is the type and extent of employee involvement in the production of services—consumer, professional, and human services. The second dimension is the four sets of client motives for participation in sport and physical activity—pursuit of pleasure, skill, excellence, and health/fitness. A combination of these two dimensions yields six classes of sport and physical activity services: consumer pleasure, consumer health/fitness, human skills, human excellence, human sustenance, and human curative. The managerial implications emerging from the proposed model are outlined with reference to programming, organizing, staffing, and leading in organizations delivering sport and physical activity services.

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Marco Visentin, Daniele Scarpi and Gabriele Pizzi

In this research we develop a comprehensive model of sponsorship effects accounting for behavioral outcomes such as actual purchase, purchase intentions, and word-of-mouth referral intention. We recombine constructs that have been traditionally considered separately into three stages—assessment, elaboration, and behavior. We collect data on actual customers of Nike and Adidas flagship stores during the FIFA World Cup sponsorship. Basing on our results, we provide a consumer-oriented perspective on the role of attitude toward the brand, fit, and involvement with the event in determining customer reaction to sponsorship activities.

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Joon-Ho Kang

This study investigates how self-esteem moderates decision-making processes for initiating physical activity in a consumption situation. Kang (2002) developed a structural model that integrates self-participant image congruency (SIC), attitudes, and intentions. This model was used to examine the moderating effects of self-esteem on individual decisions regarding consumption for physical activity. College students (N = 215) completed a questionnaire that included measures of SIC, attitudes, and intentions for joining a private health club, as well as a self-esteem scale (Heatherton & Polivy, 1991). Multiple group analyses using LISREL 8 were conducted between relatively high and low self-esteem participants for physical, performance, and social self-esteem dimensions. The results indicated that the direct influence of SIC on intentions is stronger for participants with high physical self-esteem than for those with low physical self-esteem, whereas the direct impact of attitudes on intentions is greater for low- than for high physical self-esteem participants. Performance self-esteem and social self-esteem, however, did not moderate decision-making processes. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

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Wendy Frisby, Susan Crawford and Therese Dorer

In contrast to traditional approaches to research, participatory action research calls for the active involvement of the community—including both the beneficiaries and providers of sport services—in defining research problems, executing interventions, interpreting results, and designing strategies to change existing power structures. The purpose of this paper was to analyze a participatory action research project designed to increase the access of women living below the poverty line and their families to local physical activity services. A framework developed by Green et al. (1995) formed the basis of the analysis. To place the analysis in context, the historical origins and theoretical assumptions underlying participatory action research were addressed. The case of the Women's Action Project demonstrated how the process can result in a more inclusive local sport system and, at the same time, provide a rich setting for examining organizational dynamics including collaborative decision-making, community partnerships, power imbalances, resource control, resistance to change, and nonhierarchical structures.