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Kenneth E. Powell and Steven N. Blair

Nearly 25 years ago, Jeremy Morris ( 1994 ) declared physical activity to be the “best buy in public health.” Morris, the epidemiologist credited with publishing the first modern scientific evidence of the cardiovascular health benefits of physical activity ( Morris, Heady, Raffle, Roberts, & Parks

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Karin A. Pfeiffer and Michael J. Wierenga

Physical inactivity is a recognized independent risk factor for mortality and chronic morbidity in adults ( Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee, 2018 ). Specific to the U.S. context, physical inactivity is estimated on average to cause 11% of premature mortality and 7% of disease burden

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Buffie Longmire-Avital, Takudzwa Madzima, and Elyse Bierut

-intensity physical activity or 75 min of vigorous-intensity physical activity each week. One of the most important benefits of physical activity and exercise is decreased morbidity and mortality ( Brown, Burton, & Rowan, 2007 ; Kokkinos & Myers, 2010 ). Not only does physical activity help to prevent diseases such

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Thomas L. McKenzie

The importance of physical activity to the growth and development of children and adolescents is clear ( 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee ), and schools have been identified as key venues to increase physical activity in both global ( World Health Organization, 2018 ) and U

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Barbara E. Ainsworth, Mark Richardson, David R. Jacobs Jr., and Arthur S. Leon

We examined gender differences in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in 50 women and 28 men using questionnaire data and identified how LTPA status may be misclassified based on physical activity questionnaire content. LTPA was determined using the Four Week Physical Activity History modification of the Minnesota LTPA questionnaire. LTPA was classified as total, light- (≤ 4.0 METS), moderate- (4.5-5.5 METS), and heavy-intensity (≥ 6.0 METs), and household LTPA. The questionnaire was administered 14 times (every 26 days). Scores were computed as kcal·day−1 and min·day−1 with the 14 visits averaged to yield one year LTPA scores. Skewed data were log-transformed and are presented as the geometric mean. There were no gender differences in kcal·day−1 for total- (385 vs 421), moderate- (28.2 vs 23.3), and light-intensity LTPA (72.2 vs 52.6, p > .05). Heavy-intensity LTPA was greater in men than in women (98.1 vs 50.5, p = 0.01), while household LTPA was greater in women than in men (238.2 vs 134.7, p < .0001). Omission of heavy-intensity LTPA from the questionnaire reduced total LTI’A by 25% in men and 12% in women. In contrast, omission of household LTPA reduced total LTPA by 35% in men and 57% in women. Thus LTPA may be underestimated and activity status misclassified if questionnaires fail to include activities with high gender-specific participation rates.

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Catrine Tudor-Locke and Elroy J. Aguiar

Ambulation (stepping) is an essential component of many activities of daily living (e.g., household chores, active transport), with walking being the most commonly reported physical activity choice across the globe ( Hulteen et al., 2017 ). As such, step counting has become a standard measurement

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David R. Bassett, Patty S. Freedson, and Dinesh John

Wearable activity trackers, devices that measure physical activity under free-living conditions, are part of a rapidly growing trend in medicine. In 2016, Fitbit Inc. was reported to have a 79% market share in wearable activity trackers ( The NPD Group, 2016 ) and shipped 22.5 million units

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Nicola Brown and Yasmin Bowmer

Physical activity (PA) provides a spectrum of physiological benefits ( Reiner, Niermann, Jekauc, & Woll, 2012 ) and is effective in the prevention of several chronic conditions such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, depression, and back pain ( Mammen, 2013 ; Mansi & Khaldi

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Eve Bernstein

The Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness (COSMF) and the Committee on School Health (COSH; 2000 ) suggested that physical education classes play an important role in introducing and promoting physical activity to youth and adolescents. This introduction may be the first time that students are

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Karla A. Henderson

Research reports released almost every day extol the healthful physical and mental benefits of physical activity. Many women, however, fail to participate in physical activities because of reasons that relate to personal, social, and organizational constraints. Understanding what to do to help women enhance their physical activity involvement must be considered by many people. Change in directions that will add quality to women’s lives will not happen without consciously directed effort on the part of individuals, as well as institutions, within society. A basic assumption underlying this paper is that physical activity possesses the components of leisure when it is freely chosen and found enjoyable. Therefore, I propose that change needs to occur within society, among individuals, and by activity providers if opportunities for enjoyable and beneficial physical involvement are to be enhanced for girls and women.