, physical activity level is lower in older adults ( Inoue et al., 2011 ). Thus, promotions of physical activity are important to reduce the increase of the population with dementia ( Barnes & Yaffe, 2011 ). Increasing the expectation about the link between physical activities and reduction in dementia risk
Kazuhiro Harada, Sangyoon Lee, Sungchul Lee, Seongryu Bae, Yuya Anan, Kenji Harada and Hiroyuki Shimada
Mieko Yokozuka, Chie Miki, Makoto Suzuki and Rieko Katsura
the participants regularly gathered to participate in physical fitness activities. Toe flexor strength was measured using a dynamometer, and the activity levels in daily life were measured using a pedometer and the life space assessment (LSA) questionnaire form. Toe flexor strength and LSA scores were
Guy C. Le Masurier, Aaron Beighle, Charles B. Corbin, Paul W. Darst, Charles Morgan, Robert P. Pangrazi, Bridgette Wilde and Susan D. Vincent
The purpose of this study was to describe the pedometer-determined physical activity levels of American youth.
A secondary analysis of six existing data sets including 1839 (1046 females, 793 males; ages 6 to 18) school-aged, predominantly white subjects from the southwest US. Grade clusters for elementary (grades 1 to 3), upper elementary (grades 4 to 6), middle school (grades 7 to 9), and high school (grades 10 to 12) were created for statistical analysis.
Males in grades 1 to 3 and 4 to 6 accumulated significantly more steps/d (13,110 ± 2870 and 13,631 ± 3463, respectively; P < 0.001) than males in grades 7 to 9 and 10 to 12 (11,082 ± 3437 and 10,828 ± 3241). Females in grades 1 to 3 and 4 to 6 accumulated significantly more steps/d (11,120 ± 2553 and 11,125 ± 2923; P < 0.001) than females in grades 7 to 9 and 10 to 12 (10,080 ± 2990 and 9706 ± 3051).
Results are consistent with those reported for other objective assessments of youth activity indicating that males are typically more active than females and physical activity is less prevalent among secondary school youth than those in elementary school. Pedometer-determined physical activity levels of youth, including secondary school youth, are higher than reported for adult populations.
Claudia O. Alberico, J. Aaron Hipp and Rodrigo S. Reis
installing FZ in parks increased frequency of use and levels of physical activities in those locations, as well as the weekly frequency of physical activities among users of the parks. Similarly, in Australia, Cranney et al 13 found that installing FZ in parks increased physical activity levels of park
Priscilla G. MacRae, John F. Schnelle, Sandra F. Simmons and Joseph G. Ouslander
The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of ambulatory nursing home residents (N = 95) and identify factors that predicted these activity levels. The residents’ physical activity levels (standing, walking, and wheelchair propulsion), as measured by time-sampled observations and Caltrac motion sensors, indicated that restraint use was the major predictor of low physical activity. Both the physically restrained and the physically unrestrained groups, however, were inactive, with 93.8% and 83.5% of the observations, respectively, representing either lying or sitting. In the unrestrained group, scores measuring the resident’s fall risk, self-selected walking speed, upper and lower body strength, and body mass index were significant predictors of physical activity level. In the restrained group, scores measuring the resident’s fall risk and upper body strength were significant predictors of activity level.
Joey C. Eisenmann, P.T. Katzmarzyk and Mark S. Tremblay
In recent years, it has been noted that children and youth are physically inactive, and physical activity levels have declined over the past decades. However, few empirical studies have been conducted to test this assumption. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine leisure-time physical activity levels among Canadian adolescents 12–19 years of age.
Age, sex, geographic, and temporal trends in leisure-time physical activity energy expenditure (AEE) were examined using data from 5 national surveys conducted between 1981 and 1998. AEE was calculated from participants’ questionnaire responses on physical activity participation. General linear models were used to examine the differences in AEE across survey years, geographic regions, sexes, and age groups.
Males and 12–14-year-olds displayed greater AEE than females and 15–19-year-olds, respectively, and AEE was lowest in Quebec and highest in the West. AEE increased between the 1981 and 1988 surveys and has since remained relatively stable. The prevalence of subjects meeting the 12.6 kJ · kg−1 · d−1 (3 kcal · kg−1 · d−1) recommendation increased from 1981 to 1988. Since 1988, the prevalence of those meeting the 12.6 kJ · kg−1 · d−1 recommendation has decreased in 12–14 year old boys and remained relatively stable in the other groups. In 1998, about 45% of males and 35% of females met the 12.6 kJ · kg−1 · d−1 recommendation. In 1998, about 20% of 12–19-year-old males and 12–14-year-old females met the 25.1 kJ · kg−1 · d−1 (6 kcal · kg−1 · d−1) recommendation, while about 10% of 15–19-year-old females met this recommendation. In females, the prevalence of those meeting the 25.1 kJ · kg−1 · d−1 recommendation has remained relatively stable (about 10%) since 1981 except for an increase between 1996 and 1998 in 12–14-year-old girls. In males, a similar pattern, but not as dramatic, of that observed for the prevalence of those meeting the 12.6 kJ · kg−1 · d−1 emerged—that is, an increase between 1981 and 1988 and then a decrease in 12–14-year-old boys and a stable pattern in 15–19-year-old boys.
Although self-reported leisure-time physical activity appears to have increased since 1981, a majority of Canadian adolescents do not meet current recommendations for physical activity.
Jennifer R. O’Neill, Russell R. Pate and Michael W. Beets
The aims of this study were to describe the physical activity levels of girls during dance classes and to identify factors associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in those classes.
Participants were 137 girls (11 to 18 years-old) enrolled in ballet, jazz, or tap dance classes from 11 dance studios. Participants wore an accelerometer during the selected dance class on 2 separate days. Factors hypothesized to be associated with MVPA were dance style, instructional level, instructor’s experience, percent of class time spent in choreography, and participants’ age, race/ethnicity, BMI-for-age percentile, and years of dance training. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models.
Girls engaged in 9.8 minutes of MVPA, 6.0 minutes of moderate, 3.8 minutes of vigorous, 39.3 minutes of light, and 10.9 minutes of sedentary behavior per hour of dance class participation. Jazz/tap classes provided more MVPA than ballet classes, and intermediate level classes provided more MVPA than advanced level classes. Girls with more dance training obtained more MVPA than girls with less dance training.
Dance classes provide valuable opportunities for adolescent girls to be physically active.
Shannon L. Delaney, Pablo Monsivais and Donna B. Johnson
Although more than 1 million US children attend licensed family child care homes, little is known about children’s physical activity in this setting. The purpose of this study is to describe the physical activity of children cared for in child care homes.
The study sample included 31 licensed family child care homes in Washington State. Children aged 3 to 6 wore accelerometers while in child care over 5 days. Minutes per hour spent at 4 activity levels were calculated and averaged for all children in the home. Contextual factors such as provider practices, staff training, and home characteristics were assessed using standardized questions.
Accelerometer data from 144 children were included, with 2 to 11 children monitored per home. The mean minutes of sedentary activity per hour (min/h) was 34.3 (SD = 4.6, range 27.7 to 46.6). For moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) it was 8.8 min/h (SD = 2.6, range 3.6 to 14.1) and for vigorous physical (VPA) activity it was 3.1 min/h (SD = 1.4, range: 0.9 to 7.0).
The low levels of MVPA and VPA in many homes reinforces the need for additional research to identify policy and practice recommendations that will be most effective in increasing physical activity in this setting.
Kelly B. Lynch, Charles B. Corbin and Cara L. Sidman
Current guidelines encourage adults to perform regular physical activity (PA) for optimal health, yet the majority of adults fail to meet the guidelines. One explanation for the difficulty in adding PA to meet recommended levels is an internal PA control center that may result in a compensatory lowering of normal activity levels after “added activity” sessions during the day. The purpose of this study was to test the compensation hypothesis by assessing PA on days of “added” PA among adults.
Twenty middle-aged adults recorded daily step counts, in addition to step counts and minutes of basketball play. To test for compensation, step counts on nonbasketball days were compared with steps counts on basketball days (excluding basketball steps).
No significant differences (F = 0.711) were found between groups. In summary, no compensatory decrease in PA was identified on basketball participation days in this population. When steps in basketball were added, differences (P = .01) in daily step counts existed between basketball days (mean = 15,568) and nonbasketball days (mean = 8,408).
These results suggest that “added” PA (basketball) does not result in compensatory reductions in typical daily PA on days of “added” activity for the population studied.
Casey Mace Firebaugh, Simon Moyes, Santosh Jatrana, Anna Rolleston and Ngaire Kerse
< .001) for those with the lowest grip strength ( Ling et al., 2010 ). The study also assessed physical activity levels and found that lower handgrip strength was also significantly associated ( p < .001) with lower levels of physical activity ( Ling et al., 2010 ). This concurs with another study