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Lijing Wang, Ligong Duan, Xukun Li and Guoping Li


Calpains and calpastatin can degrade muscle proteins, but no research has investigated the expression pattern of calpains and calpastatin after exhaustive exercise.


To investigate the alterations in expression of μ-, m-, and n-calpain and calpastatin after exhaustive exercise and its association with muscle injury.


64 rats divided into 2 groups, a nonexercise control group and an acute-exhaustive-exercise (AEE) group. Biopsies in the AEE group were taken at different times after exercise.


Calpastatin protein expression and m-calpain activity increased early after exercise, but both n-calpain protein expression and μ-calpain activity generally decreased with time. n-Calpain mRNA expression was down- regulated from late after exercise.


The increased m-calpain activity might promote muscle-protein degradation and muscle injury. On the contrary, calpastatin might execute a protective function against muscle injury. The change in p-calpain activity was found earlier than muscle injury and therefore might serve as a useful predictor of muscle injury.

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Melissa J. Brown, Richard D. Tandy, Gabriele Wulf and John C. Young

Previous studies indicate that rifle shooting performance while standing is compromised when fatigued. Apprehension of suspects by police officers may involve foot pursuit and firing a weapon from a standing position. The purpose of the current study was to investigate pistol shooting performance in police officers under similar conditions of physical fatigue. Participants (mean age: 30.1 years; 4.4 years of experience as police officer) completed two shooting trials separated by an acute bout of exercise on a cycle ergometer to voluntary exhaustion. Each trial consisted of three rounds of five rapid-fire shots at a target, each round separated by a 15-s rest. Participants’ backs were turned to the target between rounds. Despite physical exertion, with an average heart rate of 164 bpm, shooting accuracy (mean distance of the closest 4 shots from the center of the target) and precision (diameter of the tightest 4-shot grouping) remained unchanged on postexercise trials relative to preexercise trials. This suggests that automatic shooting reactions override the adverse consequences of fatiguing exercise on shooting performance.

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Tatsuya Daikoku, Yuji Takahashi, Nagayoshi Tarumoto and Hideki Yasuda

abilities on ERP responses to rhythm . Neuropsychologia, 85 , 80 – 90 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.02.018 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.02.018 Chang , Y.K. , Labban , J.D. , Gapin , J.I. , & Etnier , J.L. ( 2012 ). The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance: A meta

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Elizabeth F. Teel, Stephen W. Marshall, L. Gregory Appelbaum, Claudio L. Battaglini, Kevin A. Carneiro, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, Johna K. Register-Mihalik and Jason P. Mihalik

concussion. Literature supports exercise implementation in chronic concussion recovery stages because exercised individuals have shorter symptom durations, 12 – 14 decreased depression scores, 15 and improved mood. 15 Still, clinicians remain cautious when prescribing acute exercise treatments despite no

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Renee Engeln, Margaret Shavlik and Colleen Daly

positive affect ( Reed & Ones, 2006 ), as well as studies showing the potential for acute exercise to decrease negative affective states ( Bartholomew, Morrison, & Ciccolo, 2005 ; Petruzzello, Landers, Hatfield, Kubitz, & Salazar, 1991 ). Additionally, the change in women’s body satisfaction from pre

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Paul E. Yeatts, Ronald Davis, Jun Oh and Gwang-Yon Hwang

Physical activity affect refers to a person’s acute exercise-induced psychological and emotional status ( Ekkekakis, 2013 ; Lox, Jackson, Tuholski, Wasley, & Treasure, 2000 ). Components of physical activity affect include positive affect (PA—energetic, enthusiastic, and upbeat), negative affect