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Jeffrey A. Woods and Brandt D. Pence

Exercise immunology is a relatively new discipline in the exercise sciences that seeks to understand how exercise affects the immune system and susceptibility to infectious and chronic diseases. This brief review will focus on three major observations that have driven the field to date including: (1) acute exercise-induced leukocytosis, (2) the observation that intense, prolonged exercise results in upper respiratory tract symptoms, and (3) the paradoxical effect of acute and chronic exercise on inflammation. This framework will be used to examine the mechanisms and implications behind these seminal observations. Data generally support the conclusion that moderate intensity exercise enhances immune function, whereas prolonged, intense exercise diminishes immune function.

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Michael Gay and Semyon Slobounov

– 169 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.humov.2017.02.005 10.1016/j.humov.2017.02.005 Ferris , L.T. , Williams , J.S. , & Shen , C.-L. ( 2007 ). The effect of acute exercise on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive function . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39 ( 4 ), 728

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Leah E. Robinson

in motor cortex activity as infants develop functional motor skills . Developmental Psychobiology, 58 ( 6 ), 773 – 783 . PubMed doi:10.1002/dev.21418 10.1002/dev.21418 Palmer , K.K. , Miller , M.W. , & Robinson , L.E. ( 2013 ). Acute exercise enhances preschoolers’ ability to sustain