benefits, it is important to determine the physiological and psychological stress that they elicit to optimize periodization, maximize training-induced adaptations, and minimize overtraining and injury risk. Some studies have previously analyzed the acute response to an RS or high-intensity interval
Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Javier Vázquez-Carrión, Manuela González, Zigor Montalvo and Grégoire P. Millet
Jason Brandenburg and David Docherty
To examine the acute response to 2 resistance-exercise protocols performed to repetition failure, but different in load configuration, and determine whether the acute response was related to strength increases after 8 weeks of training.
Eighteen resistance-trained men completed a single session of 2 resistance-exercise protocols. The constant-load protocol (CL) required subjects to complete 3 sets of single-arm preacher curls (elbow flexion) to failure using a load of ~77% 1RM. The reduced-load protocol (RL) was similar, but training load was reduced for the second and third sets. Maximal isometric force (MVIC) and blood lactate were assessed preprotocol and postprotocol to determine the acute response. For the 8-week training phase, subjects (N = 12) were divided into 2 programs, each corresponsing to 1 of the protocols. Strength was measured before and after training.
MVIC decreased from 106.2 ± 13.8 to 84.3 ± 12.1 N · m and from 109.1 ± 14.7 to 82.5 ± 13 N · m after the CL and RL protocols, respectively. The decrements in MVIC were significant (P < .001), with the decline after RL tending to be greater (P = .051). Postprotocol blood lactate concentrations after CL and RL were 3.4 ± 1.1 and 4.1 ± 1.3 mmol/L, respectively, with greater increases after RL (P = .036). Similar and significant 1RM strength increases were observed after both programs (from 20.7 ± 2.7 to 23.3 ± 3.5 kg after CL and from 22.4 ± 2.9 to 25.5 ± 3.2 kg after RL; P < .001).
The similar increases in strength suggest that either the greater acute response to RL was not related to the increases in strength or a minimal (threshold) response was achieved during both programs.
Gerhard Tschakert and Peter Hofmann
High-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) has been applied in competitive sports for more than 100 years. In the last decades, interval studies revealed a multitude of beneficial effects in various subjects despite a large variety of exercise prescriptions. Therefore, one could assume that an accurate prescription of HIIE is not relevant. However, the manipulation of HIIE variables (peak workload and peak-workload duration, mean workload, intensity and duration of recovery, number of intervals) directly affects the acute physiological responses during exercise leading to specific medium- and long-term training adaptations. The diversity of intermittent-exercise regimens applied in different studies may suggest that the acute physiological mechanisms during HIIE forced by particular exercise prescriptions are not clear in detail or not taken into consideration. A standardized and consistent approach to the prescription and classification of HIIE is still missing. An optimal and individual setting of the HIIE variables requires the consideration of the physiological responses elicited by the HIIE regimen. In this regard, particularly the intensities and durations of the peak-workload phases are highly relevant since these variables are primarily responsible for the metabolic processes during HIIE in the working muscle (eg, lactate metabolism). In addition, the way of prescribing exercise intensity also markedly influences acute metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses. Turn-point or threshold models are suggested to be more appropriate and accurate to prescribe HIIE intensity than using percentages of maximal heart rate or maximal oxygen uptake.
Patrick P.J.M. Schoenmakers, Florentina J. Hettinga and Kate E. Reed
, 1-min recovery; 2MIN, 2-min recovery; 3MIN, 3-min recovery; 4MIN, 4-min recovery; ACT, active recovery; AIT, aerobic interval training; AR, acute responses; [BLa], blood lactate concentration; CON, control group; FFM, fat-free body mass; H+, hydrogen ions; HR, heart rate; HR130, recovery duration
David R. Hooper, William J. Kraemer, Rebecca L. Stearns, Brian R. Kupchak, Brittanie M. Volk, William H. DuPont, Carl M. Maresh and Douglas J. Casa
elite ultraendurance athletes in the world. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the basal concentrations of testosterone and cortisol in elite triathletes, as well as to assess the impact of the race on the acute responses of these hormones. A secondary purpose of the study was to assess
Ritva S. Taipale, Jussi Mikkola, Ari T. Nummela, Juha Sorvisto, Kai Nyman, Heikki Kyröläinen and Keijo Häkkinen
To examine acute responses of force production and oxygen uptake to combined strength (S) and endurance-running (E) loading sessions in which the order of exercises is reversed (ES vs SE).
This crossover study design included recreationally endurance-trained men and women (age 21−45 y; n = 12 men, 10 women) who performed ES and SE loadings. Force production of the lower extremities including countermovement-jump height (CMJ) and maximal isometric strength (MVC) was measured pre-, mid-, and post-ES and -SE, and ground-reaction forces, ground-reaction times, and running economy were measured during E.
A significant decrease in CMJ was observed after combined ES and SE in men (4.5% ± 7.0% and 6.6% ± 7.7%, respectively) but not in women (0.2% ± 8.5% and 1.4% ± 7.3% in ES and SE). MVC decreased significantly in both men (20.7% ± 6.1% ES and 19.3% ± 9.4% SE) and women (12.4% ± 9.3% ES and 11.6% ± 12.0% SE). Stride length decreased significantly in ES and SE men, but not in women. No changes were observed in ground-reaction times during running in men or women. Performing S before E caused greater (P < .01) oxygen uptake during running in both men and women than if E was performed before S, although heart rate and blood lactate were similar between ES and SE.
Performing S before E increased oxygen uptake during E, which is explained, in part, by a decrease in MVC in both men and women, decreased CMJ and stride length in men, and/or an increase in postexercise oxygen consumption.
Anne Delextrat and Semah Kraiem
The physiological load experienced during basketball drills is crucial to understand players’ adaptation to team-sport training and plan physical-conditioning programs.
To compare mean heart-rate (HRmean) responses by playing position during 2-a-side (2v2) and 3-a-side (3v3) ball drills in male junior basketball players and explore the relationship between HRmean and repeated-sprint ability (RSA).
Thirtyone players volunteered to participate in this study. On separate occasions, they performed 2v2 and 3v3 ball drills and 6 repetitions of shuttle-run sprints of 20 m (10+10 m), departing every 20 s (RSA). Ball drills took place on the full length but only half the width of the court and were three 4-min bouts separated by 1-min rest periods. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) assessed the effect of the number of players on court (2v2 vs 3v3) and playing position (guards vs forwards vs centers) on HRmean, and a Pearson correlation coefficient evaluated the relation between HRmean and RSA.
The main results showed greater HRmean in 2v2 than in 3v3 ball drills (P < .001) in all playing positions (90.7% ± 1.3% vs 87.6% ± 3% of HRpeak in guards, 91.3% ± 2.1% vs 87.5% ± 3.7% of HRpeak for forwards, and 88.2% ± 3.5% vs 82.2% ± 5.6% of HRpeak in centers, respectively, for 2v2 and 3v3). In addition, centers were characterized by lower HRmean than guards and forwards in 3v3 only (P = .018).
These results suggest that 2v2 drills should be preferred to 3v3 drills for aerobic conditioning, in particular for centers. Finally, RSA does not seem to influence players’ acute responses to ball drills.
Lucas A. Pereira, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Saul Martín-Rodríguez, Ronaldo Kobal, César C.C. Abad, Ademir F.S. Arruda, Aristide Guerriero and Irineu Loturco
fatigue, the acute responses of elite athletes to specific workouts (ie, technical, tactical, or physical training sessions) seem to be one of the most frequently examined topics. For example, Weakley et al 3 reported distinct vertical jump, perceptual, metabolic, and hormonal responses to traditional
Adam Grainger, Paul Comfort and Shane Heffernan
selected players were exposed to both the PBC and control conditions between 10 AM and 12 PM. Players were administered PBC for 12 weeks (minimum of 9 wk exposure per player) as this was seen as an appropriate period for PBC treatment to elicit a chronic effect, rather an acute response. During the final 3
Ralph Beneke, Tobias G.J. Weber and Renate M. Leithäuser
-dependent differences in the metabolic acute responses have been linked with muscle-fiber activation. Higher fast-twitch muscle-fiber recruitment is associated with higher rpm, particularly at relative low exercise intensities. 17 – 21 Compared with the slow-twitch-fiber enzymatic profile, fast-twitch muscle fibers