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Marc Francaux and Jacques R. Poortmans


Allegations about side effects of creatine supplementation by athletes have been published in the popular media and scientific publications.


To examine the experimental evidence relating to the physiological effects of creatine supplementation.


One of the purported effects of oral creatine supplementation is increased muscle mass. A review of the literature reveals a 1.0% to 2.3% increase in body mass, which is attributed to fat-free mass and, more specifically, to skeletal-muscle mass. Although it is unlikely that water retention can completely explain these changes, increase in muscle-protein synthesis has never been observed after creatine supplementation. Indirect evidence based on mRNA analyses suggests that transcription of certain genes is enhanced. Although the effect of creatine on muscle-protein synthesis seems irrefutable according to advertising, this allegation remains under debate in the scientific literature. The kidneys appear to maintain their functionality in healthy subjects who supplement with creatine, even over several months.


The authors, however, think that creatine supplementation should not be used by an individual with preexisting renal disease and that risk should be evaluated before and during any supplementation period. Even if there is a slight increase in mutagenic agents (methylamine and formaldehyde) in urine after a heavy load of creatine (20 g/day), their excretion remains within a normal range. No data are currently available regarding the potential production of heterocyclic amines with creatine supplementation. In summary, the major risk for health is probably associated with the purity of commercially available creatine.

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Bridget Ellen Philippa Bourke, Dane Francis Baker and Andrea Jane Braakhuis

consuming 20 (7) 6 (8) 14 (6) Don’t know how 17 (6) 3 (4) 14 (6) Other b 8 (3) 3 (4) 5 (2) a Multiple responses allowed. b Marketing/advertising concerns and information overload. Perceived Advantages Athletes were asked to describe their perceived advantages of social media as a nutrition resource in open

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Jan Schroeder, Franziska Erthel and Karsten Hollander

baseline within 24 hours. Methods Subjects Healthy, recreational runners were recruited by local advertising at the University of Hamburg, Germany. A total of 18 volunteers (4 females and 14 males, mean (SD): age 28.2 [4.7 y, body mass index 22.8 [1.9] kg/m 2 ) participated in the study. Information about

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Stewart Cotterill

. There’s obviously the fact that the ECB [national governing body] advertise for their national roles, but I’ve never seen, in 7 years, six and a half years, whatever, I don’t think I’ve ever seen a county psychologist job advertised. This lack of advertising is problematic as it often leads to a lack of

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Andrew D. Govus, Aaron Coutts, Rob Duffield, Andrew Murray and Hugh Fullagar

plays with long rest periods between plays (to accommodate for television advertising). As a result, during NCAA football the demands may be as high as 38 high-acceleration efforts and impact forces of up to 10- g -force units, along with total distances of 5530 m and 655 m of high-intensity running

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Alan J. McCubbin, Gregory R. Cox and Ricardo J.S. Costa

, sport-specific sources (coaches, managers, and trainers) and social supports (fellow athletes, friends, and relatives), peer-reviewed journals, media (television, magazines, internet, etc.), self-experimentation, sales and marketing (advertising material, company sales representatives, and store

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Amparo Escartí, Ramon Llopis-Goig and Paul M. Wright

attitudes on preventing and banning DTC advertising . Journal of Consumer Affairs, 40 , 90 – 116 . doi:10.1111/j.1745-6606.2006.00047.x 10.1111/j.1745-6606.2006.00047.x Jacobs , J.M. , & Wright , P.M. ( 2014 ). Social and emotional learning policies and physical education . Strategies, 27 , 42

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Hugh H.K. Fullagar, Robert McCunn and Andrew Murray

/plays and injury-, tactical-, and advertising-derived timeouts result in typical recovery time between plays being ∼25 to 40 seconds. However, specific repeated plays with short periods of rest (ie, ‘up-tempo’ football) may also place an additional demand on the aerobic system. This may be concerning given

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Nima Dehghansai and Joseph Baker

Initiatives have been designed to attract novice athletes and to enable transfer for experienced athletes. However, the authors have very little knowledge of the effectiveness of these programs. To further improve our understanding, this study explored the demographic and sporting careers of 225 participants attending one of the 10 Paralympian Search events held between 2016 and 2018. The sample consisted of participants with a wide range of impairments and sport experiential backgrounds. The majority of the participants reported having some experience in sports, suggesting that either the promotions reached athletes involved in sports already or the advertising appealed especially to this cohort. Athletes with impairments acquired at various stages of their lives (congenital, before adolescence, adolescence, early adulthood, and adulthood) displayed differences in their sporting trajectories, suggesting considerations for current developmental models. Furthermore, it should be considered to vary the testing locations of future events to increase the reach to rural areas and implement new methods to attract novice participants.

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Danielle Peers, Timothy Konoval and Rebecca Marsh Naturkach

. Discourses of charity are not always as obvious as Achilles Canada, and sometimes take the form of discursive assumptions. This is evident on Athletics Canada’s website (“disciplines, para-athletics”), where the assumption is that one is not advertising to disabled people, but to their nondisabled helpers