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Yongjin Hwang, Khalid Ballouli, Kevin So and Bob Heere

globally from in-game advertising (IGA) is expected to reach nearly $7 billion by 2019, an increase of more than $5 billion since 2009 ( Statista, 2016 ). Current research on IGA has been encouraging yet not exhaustive. Scholars have explored effects of IGA on memory (recall and recognition), attitude

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Beth A. Cianfrone, Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove and Alyssa L. Tavormina

deep discount (e.g., 40% or more off regular price). In addition to the deal itself, the advertising e-mail often provides the consumer with organizational information, the level of the discount, the process through which the transaction will take place (i.e., through the daily-deal organization), and

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Do Young Pyun and Jeffrey D. James

A challenge with advertising communications is to better understand beliefs driving people’s attitude toward advertising. Successful use of sport communication requires a better understanding of the beliefs composing attitudes toward advertising through sport. A 4-phase study was conducted to develop a scale measuring 7 belief dimensions as indicants of attitude toward advertising through sport. Phase 1 (N = 125) provided an initial test of the proposed instrument. Phase 2 (N = 215) included an assessment of the revised scale based on internal-consistency tests and exploratory factor analysis. In Phase 3 (N = 424) the scale’s reliability and validity were verified using confirmatory factor analysis. In Phase 4 (N = 263) the internal consistency and factor structure of the scale were reexamined. The combined results provide support for the conceptualization and measurement of the belief dimensions for future investigation of the relationships between beliefs about and attitude toward advertising through sport.

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Shintaro Sato, Yong Jae Ko, Kyriaki (Kiki) Kaplanidou and Daniel P. Connaughton

The purpose of this study was to examine consumers’ comparative judgment of athlete endorsers in back-toback advertisement settings. Drawing on the inclusion/exclusion model (Schwarz & Bless, 2007), the authors argue that (a) a recently observed athlete endorser impacts consumer judgment of subsequently presented endorsers, and (b) the valence of the impact depends on brand category membership of the consecutively presented endorsers. A 2 (representative endorser activation: present vs. absent) × 2 (brand category membership: membership vs. nonmembership) between-subjects design was administered across three experiments. Results demonstrated that the presence of a representative endorser increased a subsequently presented endorser’s perceived expertise when that subsequent endorser represented the same brand category. Results also demonstrated that the presence of a representative endorser decreased a subsequently presented endorser’s perceived expertise when that subsequent endorser did not represent the same brand category. Overall, these findings support both assimilation and contrast effects. The authors argue how this outcome can assist advertising managers to strategically position appropriate endorsers in marketing platforms.

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Sarah Kelly, Len Coote, T. Bettina Cornwell and Anna McAlister

This research provides insight into the complex relationship between consumer response to persuasion attempts and skepticism, suggesting that erstwhile targets may be swayed by campaigns pitched as a form of entertainment. The authors examine consumer responses to an important sponsorship-leveraging tool: sponsorship-linked advertising (SLA). A theoretical model of consumer response to SLA is proposed, drawing on important resistance mechanisms to persuasion, including ad skepticism, attributed advertiser motives, and the nature of thoughts. Results confirm existing research on consumer skepticism suggesting its transitory nature and hence potential for advertisers to strategically temper it through specific cues in ad execution. Differential processing between SLA and traditional advertising is supported, such that SLA elicits more favorable cognitive response.

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Yosuke Tsuji, Gregg Bennett and James H. Leigh

The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting brand awareness of virtual advertising in sports. Specifically, the study tested the effects of animation, repetition, baseball involvement, and team identification. An experiment using two Latin square designs was conducted to assess the effects of these factors on awareness levels. Results indicated no effect of animation, while effects of repetition, baseball involvement, and team identification were found to affect viewers’ cognitive responses. Managerial implications, limitations, and future research are discussed.

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Sarah Kelly and Michael Ireland

obtains the right to associate itself with the event ( Becker-Olsen & Simmons, 2002 ; Cornwell, Weeks, & Roy, 2005 ). Hence, sponsorship requires a contractual relationship that secures rights in addition to leveraging those rights through relevant activations, mainly through advertising. As a

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David K. Stotlar and David A. Johnson

This study investigated the effectiveness of stadium advertising on sports spectators in selected NCAA Division I football and basketball programs, utilizing intermediate measures and recognition testing techniques. Research questions included whether sport spectators would recognize the presence of stadium advertising and could identify all of it. The factors of age, income level, seat location, number of games attended, and location of stadium advertising were analyzed as to their effects on spectator recognition. Based on the findings of this research, sport facilities have been shown to be an ideal medium for products that appeal to sport spectators. A majority of spectators noticed advertising, and approximately 7 out of 10 correctly identified it. Advertising locations that were “part of the game” were shown to be more effective than those on the scoreboards. Results of this study demonstrated that stadium advertising effectiveness can be assessed and that it provides the sponsors with an effective means for reaching sport spectators.

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Susan Lynn, Marie Hardin and Kristie Walsdorf

This study examines the presentation of women in advertising photographs published in four women’s sports and fitness magazines in order to ascertain the presence of sexual difference and differentiate between advertising messages in the magazines. Researchers found strong support for sexual difference in advertisements contained in fitness-oriented magazines, and, at the other end of the spectrum, rejection of sexual difference in magazines that emphasized competitive sport. The advertising images generally provided mixed messages in regard to sexual difference. The authors suggest that the continued use of sexual difference in sport advertising images is a function of commodity feminism, which serves the capitalist hegemony. The authors discuss the need for visual representations that are truly feminist.

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Jung Woo Lee

This article investigates a sign system in promotional campaigns for the 2 sport/energy-drink brands PowerAde and Monster Energy. More specifically, the paper examines advertising materials published on the British Web sites of the 2 drink brands. The media texts are analyzed using semiotics and critical discourse analysis. In so doing, the author attempts to identify the meaning of sport in different contexts and settings and to interpret ideological connotation embedded in the commercial discourse on sport. The PowerAde advertising presents the meaning of sport as controlled and calculated physical activities associated with high-performance sport. This articulation suggests an idealization of productive individuals, and this appears to be the reification of capitalist ideology through sport. Monster Energy advertising tends to endorse alternative sporting subculture emphasizing the aspects of fun and spectacle, but such endorsement is only validated within the boundaries of consumer culture. The author concludes that advertising involves communication practice through which the meaning of sport with some ideological connotations is continually constructed and disseminated to today’s wider society.