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Patricia E. Longmuir and Roy J. Shephard

The Arm CAFT is a simple submaximal arm ergometer test for subjects with mobility disabilities, designed to match the Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (CAFT) in both administration and interpretation. It is here evaluated relative to direct arm ergometer measurements of peak oxygen intake in 41 men and women with mobility disabilities, aged 20-60, who were attending an “integrated” sports facility. Peak oxygen intake was predicted using the original CAFT equation, but the oxygen cost of arm ergometer test stages was substituted and predictions were scaled downward by 70/100 to allow for the lower peak aerobic power of the upper limbs. In 16 subjects who maintained cranking cadence, predictions were reliable over 1 week, with a small increase of score at the second test. Although the Arm CAFT protocol is reliable and free of bias, it has only a limited validity, and only a minority of the stronger individuals with mobility disabilities can sustain the required cranking rhythm.

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Patricia E. Longmuir and Roy J. Shephard

An arm ergometer analog of the Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (CAFT) has been proposed for subjects with impairments of mobility (Longmuir & Shephard, 1995). Because of muscle weakness or spasm, only 63% of the adults concerned could maintain the required cadence in the original test version. Thus, in the present study it was hypothesized that a reduced crank loading would yield a higher success rate. In a sample of 35 adults with mobility impairment, 82% were able to complete at least one stage of the modified test. Difficulty was encountered mainly by persons with cerebral palsy or multiple sclerosis. The revised protocol had a high (r = .97) 1-week test/retest reliability, with no test/retest bias except that subjects with brain lesions scored somewhat higher at their second assessment. A scaled prediction of peak oxygen intake using the standard CAFT equation agreed closely with direct arm ergometer determinations of it. The modified test showed a mean discrepancy ±SD of 0.1 ± 4.8 ml/[kg · min]. Further validation is needed, but the current analog of the standard CAFT appears to be useful for many with mobility impairments.

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Andrew Cox, Marcie B. Fyock-Martin and Joel R. Martin

Clinical Scenario Athletes may experience extended periods of detraining due to decreased physical activity and immobilization as a result of injury or surgery. An unintended side effect of rehabilitation, especially following a lower extremity injury, is a decrease in aerobic fitness. Following a

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Ross Armstrong, Christopher Michael Brogden and Matt Greig

is the Dance Aerobic Fitness Test (DAFT), 14 which is a standardized routine that elicits a quantifiable physiological response to exercise to allow the measurement of mechanical loading. Global positioning systems (GPS) with triaxial accelerometry have been used to measure mechanical loading which

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Kenneth H. Pitetti, Daniel A. Yarmer and Bo Fernhall

The purpose of this study was to compare the aerobic fitness and body mass index (BMI) of children and adolescents (8-18 yr) with and without mild mental retardation (MR). Sample size of participants with MR but without Down syndrome was 169 males and 99 females. Sample size of participants without MR was 289 males and 317 females. Analysis was made by gender and age: children (8-10 yr); early adolescents (11-14 yr); and late adolescents (15-18 yr). The 20-m shuttle run test (20 MST) was used to assess field test performance and predicted aerobic fitness. For all age groups, females and males without MR ran significantly more laps and had a significantly higher predicted aerobic fitness (V̇O2peak: ml $$ kg-1 $$ min-1) than their peers with MR. Additionally, participants with MR tended to have higher BMI than their peers without MR. The results of this study indicate that children and adolescents with MR have lower exercise capacity, lower aerobic fitness, and higher BMIs than their peers without MR.

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J. Dru Marshall and Marcel Bouffard

The purposes of the study were to determine if there is a difference in gross motor skill movement competencies between obese and nonobese children; whether Quality Daily Physical Education (QDPE) programs facilitated the development of movement skill in obese children; and whether there is an association between aerobic fitness level and motor performance results. A 2 Sex (male, female) × 2 Group (obese, nonobese) × 2 Age Categories (Grade 1, Grade 4) × 2 Program (QDPE, non-QDPE) completely randomized factorial design was used. Movement competency (Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD)) and aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run test) were assessed in 100 age-, sex-, and school-matched obese and nonobese pairs. A significant three-way interaction of Program × Group × Sex was found for the TGMD total score, suggesting that QDPE programs facilitate the development of gross motor skills in those children who are less movement competent to begin with, regardless of their obesity status. Correlations showed that aerobic fitness level was predictive of the TGMD scores. This study provides evidence in support of QDPE programs.

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Christine Seidl, Greg Reid and David L. Montgomery

Recently there has been a plethora of research investigating various dimensions of the cardiovascular fitness of mentally retarded persons. It is clearly documented that as a group, mentally retarded persons are particularly low in aerobic fitness. Although there is evidence that such low cardiovascular functioning can be increased, exercise training studies have invariably ignored the important questions of reliability and validity of the dependent measures. Also, there are innumerable testing protocols that make cross-study comparisons tenuous. Several factors are fundamental to the reliability and validity of standardized protocols that have recently been used with retarded persons. These include underlying assumptions of cadence adherence, constant efficiency, learning, and motivation to perform optimally. The development of cardiovascular test protocols for use with retarded persons is necessary to provide for their immediate and future needs in cardiovascular fitness evaluation.

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Cody R. Butler, Kirsten Allen, Lindsay J. DiStefano and Lindsey K. Lepley

and reconstruction significantly influences physical activity. For instance, those with a history of ACL injury reportedly have a lower daily step count and decreased aerobic fitness. 1 These significant declines in physical activity may negatively impair the cardiovascular system. Strikingly, a

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Jeroen de Bruijn, Henk van der Worp, Mark Korte, Astrid de Vries, Rick Nijland and Michel Brink

ranges from a few weeks to several months, one can easily imagine that an injury seriously affects a player’s aerobic fitness. 9 Fortunately, the negative effects of detraining on aerobic performance can be reversed by endurance training. 10 To accomplish this, training loads during the rehabilitation