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John F. Fitzpatrick, Kirsty M. Hicks and Philip R. Hayes

knowledge, there has yet to be a study comparing the dose–response relationship between arbitrary and individualized methods for assessing training loads and a specific training outcome, such as changes in aerobic fitness. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to compare the dose–response relationship

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Richard J. Taylor, Dajo Sanders, Tony Myers, Grant Abt, Celia A. Taylor and Ibrahim Akubat

Rugby union is a high-impact collision sport played over 80 minutes. 1 Games are typically aerobic in nature, interspersed with frequent bouts of high-speed accelerations combined with high-impact collisions from tackles, scrums, rucks, and mauls. 2 Aerobic fitness has previously been shown to be

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Xihe Zhu, Senlin Chen and James Parrott

This study examined adolescents’ interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval, and completed two interest scales immediately after each test. Test performances, interest, and body mass index data were collected. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of variance/covariance, and hierarchical regression analyses. Student situational and personal interests were low-to-moderate overall in both aerobic fitness tests. Boys reported significantly higher situational interest than girls, but there was no gender difference in personal interest. Personal interest was a significant predictor for PACER (b=.27) and 1MR (b=-.37). The predictability of situational interest to testing performances varied between PACER and 1MR. PACER and 1MR might have rendered distinct motivational stimuli that led to the varied predicting power of situational interest.

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Carlo Castagna, Ferdinando Iellamo, Franco Maria Impellizzeri and Vincenzo Manzi

The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of a popular field test for aerobic fitness used in soccer (45-15) in Italy. Alternating progressive 45-s runs with 15 s passive recovery until exhaustion, the test considers peak speed (PS) as a reflection of maximal aerobic speed (MAS). The validity and reliability of the 45-15 was assessed in 18 young male soccer players (age 16.7 ± 1.8 y, body mass 70 ± 7.45 kg, height 177 ± 0.5 cm, 55.62 ± 5.56 mL · kg−1 · min−1) submitted to laboratory testing for aerobic fitness and repeatedly to the 45-15. Results showed that 45-15 PS was significantly related to VO2max (r = .80, P < .001, 95%CI .47–.93) and MAS (r = .78, P = .001, 95%CI .43–.93). No significant bias between MAS 45-15 PS (P = .11) was found during the measurement-consistency study. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that 45-15 PS was sensitive in detecting VO2max changes in subjects as revealed by area under the curve (.97; 95%CI .73–1). Players with peak 45-15 speed equal to or above 16.5 km/h (ie, ROC cutoff) may be considered to have good aerobic fitness. In light of this study’s findings, the 45-15 test may be considered a reliable and valid test to evaluate meaningful information to direct generic aerobic training in soccer.

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Samantha M. McDonald and Stewart G. Trost

Purpose:

This study evaluated the effects of a goal setting intervention on aerobic fitness (AF) in 6th to 8th grade students.

Method:

Students at the intervention school received a lesson on SMART goal setting. Students in the comparison school served as a measurement-only group. AF was assessed via the PACER multistage shuttle run test pre and post intervention. Between-group differences for change in AF were assessed using a RM ANCOVA.

Results:

A significant group by time interaction was observed for PACER performance, F(1,263) = 39.9, p < .0001. Intervention students increased PACER performance from 40.6 to 45.9 laps, while comparison students exhibited a decline from 30.2 to 23.4 laps. Intervention students were 10 times as likely as those in the comparison school to maintain Healthy Fitness Zone status or progress from Needs Improvement Zone to Healthy Fitness Zone.

Discussion:

Educating middle school students about SMART goal setting may be an effective strategy for improving aerobic fitness.

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Vinícius F. Milanez, Rafael E. Pedro, Alexandre Moreira, Daniel A. Boullosa, Fuad Salle-Neto and Fábio Y. Nakamura

Purpose:

The aim of this study was to verify the influence of aerobic fitness (VO2max) on internal training loads, as measured by the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) method.

Methods:

Nine male professional outfeld futsal players were monitored for 4 wk of the in-season period with regards to the weekly accumulated session-RPE, while participating in the same training sessions. Single-session-RPE was obtained from the product of a 10-point RPE scale and the duration of exercise. Maximal oxygen consumption was determined during an incremental treadmill test.

Results:

The average training load throughout the 4 wk period varied between 2,876 and 5,035 arbitrary units. Technical-tactical sessions were the predominant source of loading. There was a significant correlation between VO2max (59.6 ± 2.5 mL·kg–1 ·min–1) and overall training load accumulated over the total period (r = –0.75).

Conclusions:

The VO2max plays a key role in determining the magnitude of an individual’s perceived exertion during futsal training sessions.

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Patricia E. Longmuir and Roy J. Shephard

The Arm CAFT is a simple submaximal arm ergometer test for subjects with mobility disabilities, designed to match the Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (CAFT) in both administration and interpretation. It is here evaluated relative to direct arm ergometer measurements of peak oxygen intake in 41 men and women with mobility disabilities, aged 20-60, who were attending an “integrated” sports facility. Peak oxygen intake was predicted using the original CAFT equation, but the oxygen cost of arm ergometer test stages was substituted and predictions were scaled downward by 70/100 to allow for the lower peak aerobic power of the upper limbs. In 16 subjects who maintained cranking cadence, predictions were reliable over 1 week, with a small increase of score at the second test. Although the Arm CAFT protocol is reliable and free of bias, it has only a limited validity, and only a minority of the stronger individuals with mobility disabilities can sustain the required cranking rhythm.

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Patricia E. Longmuir and Roy J. Shephard

An arm ergometer analog of the Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (CAFT) has been proposed for subjects with impairments of mobility (Longmuir & Shephard, 1995). Because of muscle weakness or spasm, only 63% of the adults concerned could maintain the required cadence in the original test version. Thus, in the present study it was hypothesized that a reduced crank loading would yield a higher success rate. In a sample of 35 adults with mobility impairment, 82% were able to complete at least one stage of the modified test. Difficulty was encountered mainly by persons with cerebral palsy or multiple sclerosis. The revised protocol had a high (r = .97) 1-week test/retest reliability, with no test/retest bias except that subjects with brain lesions scored somewhat higher at their second assessment. A scaled prediction of peak oxygen intake using the standard CAFT equation agreed closely with direct arm ergometer determinations of it. The modified test showed a mean discrepancy ±SD of 0.1 ± 4.8 ml/[kg · min]. Further validation is needed, but the current analog of the standard CAFT appears to be useful for many with mobility impairments.

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Mark Kramer, Mark Watson, Rosa Du Randt and Robert W. Pettitt

does not reveal any metrics that delineate time limits of high-intensity performance, nor elements of anaerobic capacity. 4 , 6 , 7 The critical speed (CS) concept provides the advantage of quantifying mechanical measures associated with aerobic fitness (ie, CS) and the finite energy capacity for

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Tom W. Macpherson and Matthew Weston

Purpose:

To examine the effect of low-volume sprint interval training (SIT) on the development (part 1) and subsequent maintenance (part 2) of aerobic fitness in soccer players.

Methods:

In part 1, 23 players from the same semiprofessional team participated in a 2-wk SIT intervention (SIT, n = 14, age 25 ± 4 y, weight 77 ± 8 kg; control, n = 9, age 27 ± 6 y, weight 72 ± 10 kg). The SIT group performed 6 training sessions of 4–6 maximal 30-s sprints, in replacement of regular aerobic training. The control group continued with their regular training. After this 2-wk intervention, the SIT group was allocated to either intervention (n = 7, 1 SIT session/wk as replacement of regular aerobic training) or control (n = 7, regular aerobic training with no SIT sessions) for a 5-wk period (part 2). Pre and post measures were the YoYo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (YYIRL1) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max).

Results:

In part 1, the 2-week SIT intervention had a small beneficial effect on YYIRL1 (17%; 90% confidence limits ±11%), and VO2max (3.1%; ±5.0%) compared with control. In part 2, 1 SIT session/wk for 5 wk had a small beneficial effect on VO2max (4.2%; ±3.0%), with an unclear effect on YYIRL1 (8%; ±16%).

Conclusion:

Two weeks of SIT elicits small improvements in soccer players’ high-intensity intermittent-running performance and VO2max, therefore representing a worthwhile replacement of regular aerobic training. The effectiveness of SIT for maintaining SIT-induced improvements in high-intensity intermittent running requires further research.