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Thomas W. Rowland

Performance in all forms of motor activity related to sport performance improves progressively during the course of the childhood years as a consequence of normal growth and development. Whether (a) sport training can accelerate and ultimately enhance this biological development and (b) the existence of certain ages when training might prove to be more effective in improving performance, particularly early in childhood, remains uncertain. Physiological adaptations to endurance training in prepubertal children (improvements in maximal oxygen uptake) are dampened compared with adults, but enhancements of strength following resistance training are equally effective at all ages. The extent that intensive training regimens characteristic of early sport specialization in children can trigger physiological and performance adaptations may therefore depend on the form of exercise involved. Clearly, additional research is needed to enhance the understanding of the physiological responses to intensive sport training in prepubertal individuals.

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James M. Pivarnik, Christopher P. Connolly, Mallory R. Marshall and Rebecca A. Schlaff

Previous research clearly indicates that exercise training decreases during pregnancy, even among the fittest of women. Despite this, women are typically able to resume their prepregnancy exercise routines soon after delivery, and in some instances, their postpartum performances are better than previously experienced. While anecdotal reports are common, there does not appear to be significant research data to explain this phenomenon. In this review, we explore possible physiologic explanations for heightened postpartum exercise performance, such as pregnancy related changes in aerobic fitness, lactate threshold, flexibility, and musculoskeletal fitness. At this time, limited data do not appear to support an ergogenic role for these variables. Another consideration is a positive change in a woman’s psyche or perceptions toward her athletic abilities as a result of her pregnancy and delivery. While this concept is theoretically possible and may have scientific merit, data are sparse. What is clear is that an increasing number of women are maintaining their physical activity and exercise routines during pregnancy, with many able to return to competition soon after delivery. Well-designed studies are needed to further explore the relationships among physiologic and psychological variables and postpartum exercise performance. Ideally, these studies should be prospective (studying women prepregnancy through the postpartum period) and include diverse samples of women with regard to activity type and fitness level.

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Laura Chaddock, Michelle W. Voss and Arthur F. Kramer

Our increasingly inactive lifestyle is detrimental to physical and cognitive health. This review focuses on the beneficial relation of physical activity and aerobic fitness to the brain and cognitive health in a youth and elderly population to highlight the need to change this pattern. In children, increased physical activity and higher levels of aerobic fitness have been associated with superior academic achievement and cognitive processes. Differences in brain volumes and brain function of higher-fit and lower-fit peers are potential mechanisms underlying the performance differences in cognitive challenges. We hope that this research will encourage modifications in educational policies that will increase physical activity during the school day. In addition, older adults who participate in physical activity show higher performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, coupled with less risk of cognitive impairment. The cognitive enhancements are in part driven by less age-related brain tissue loss and increases in the efficiency of brain function. Given the increasing aging population and threat of dementia, research about the plasticity of the elderly active brain has important public health implications. Collectively, the data support that participation in physical activity could enhance daily functioning, learning, achievement, and brain health in children and the elderly.

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Gabrielle Ringenberg, Jill M. Maples and Rachel A. Tinius

prescribed exercise intervention by first establishing a baseline fitness level. The goal of exercise testing is to establish an accurate assessment of exercise capacity. The gold standard for assessing cardiorespiratory exercise capacity, or aerobic fitness, in apparently healthy individuals is by measuring

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Matthew T. Mahar and David A. Rowe

A comprehensive review of the impact of measurement and evaluation in kinesiology is difficult to accomplish within the framework of a single research paper. Measurement touches nearly every research area in the field of kinesiology. In fact, for quantitative research it can be argued that without good measurement there can be no good research. Measurement researchers in kinesiology have impacted various areas, including criterion-referenced evaluation of test scores, development of fitness tests to measure body composition and aerobic fitness, health-related physical fitness, physical activity epidemiology, youth fitness testing, and many others. They have introduced innovative statistical techniques such as item response theory, which provides the underlying basis for modern standardized testing. Issues of test equating, differential item functioning, and the great impact of the expansion of computers and the Internet deserve special attention. Unfortunately, not all of the important contributions in the measurement field can be expanded upon in this manuscript. Instead, this paper will focus mainly on key measurement and evaluation influences on public health issues. In applied measurement research, two major themes have been the assessment of physical fitness and the assessment of physical activity. The last 40 years have been a time of defining the content area of measurement in kinesiology. Important measurement textbooks were published during this period (Baumgartner & Jackson, 1975; Morrow, Jackson, Disch, & Mood, 1995; Safrit, 1986). Since the 1970s the measurement field and the kinesiology field in general expanded from a focus on physical education to include all of the exercise and sport sciences. This paper will explore measurement and evaluation in kinesiology by (a) providing an overview of major milestones in measurement and evaluation over the last 40 years, (b) discussing current key areas of research and inquiry in measurement and evaluation, and (c) speculating about future research and inquiry in measurement and evaluation. The absence in this article of other important issues in measurement and evaluation in kinesiology does not imply anything about their importance.

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Matt C. Crockett and Ted Butryn

.M. , Sommer , A.J. , Starkoff , B.E. , & Devor , S.T. ( 2013 ). CrossFit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition . Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27 ( 11 ), 3159 – 3172 . PubMed ID: 23439334 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318289e59f 10

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Darla M. Castelli and Ang Chen

instructional unit (i.e., approximately 10 lessons or 2 weeks per unit). The 9-month intervention improved aerobic fitness by an average of 4 ml·kg –1 ·min –1 over wait-list control children. An average of 70 minutes was spent in the target heart-rate zone, which proved to be a predictor of performance on

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Alan L. Smith

: 21802807 doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.06.023 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.06.023 Delli Paoli , A.G. ( 2017 ). Effects of physical activity and aerobic fitness on responses to social exclusion (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (Accession No. 2017-54456-107). Delli

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Robert W. Motl and Rachel Bollaert

( r  = .60), and short physical performance battery ( r  = −.41) scores, was supported in a separate sample of older adults with MS ( Bollaert & Motl, 2017 ). Other studies have examined aerobic fitness ( Motl, Sandroff, Pilutti, et al., 2017 ), fatigue ( Cavanaugh et al., 2011 ), fall risk

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Kendra R. Todd and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

intervention package. At the end of the 8-week study, there were significant medium- to large-size differences in physical activity, aerobic fitness, and psychosocial predictors of physical activity, with the experimental condition outperforming the control condition. It is notable that the increases in