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Adam R. Nicholls, Jim McKenna, Remco C.J. Polman and Susan H. Backhouse

The aim of this study was to explore the perceived factors that contribute to stress and negative affective states during preseason among a sample of professional rugby union players. The participants were 12 male professional rugby union players between 18 and 21 years of age (M age = 19 years, SD = 0.85). Data were collected via semistructured interviews and analyzed using an inductive content analysis procedure. Players identified training (structure and volume), the number of matches played and the recovery period, diet, sleep, and travel as factors that they believed contributed to their experience of stress and negative affective states. The present findings suggest that players may require more time to recover between matches, alongside interventions to help players manage the symptoms of stress and negative affect during times in which players are overtraining.

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Christopher P. Tomczyk, George Shaver and Tamerah N. Hunt

Clinical Scenario Anxiety is a mental disorder that affects a large portion of the population, especially adolescents and young adults. 1 Anxiety is an emotional response to a stimulus (external or internal) and is characterized by a mixture of behavioral, cognitive, and somatic symptoms. 2 , 3

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Paul E. Yeatts, Ronald Davis, Jun Oh and Gwang-Yon Hwang

Physical activity affect refers to a person’s acute exercise-induced psychological and emotional status ( Ekkekakis, 2013 ; Lox, Jackson, Tuholski, Wasley, & Treasure, 2000 ). Components of physical activity affect include positive affect (PA—energetic, enthusiastic, and upbeat), negative affect

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Aditi Mankad and Sandy Gordon

Context:

Grief can be a common psychological characteristic of long-term injury, but few athletes are taught how to effectively deal with these intense emotions.

Objective:

To examine the effectiveness of Pennebaker's standard writing paradigm in improving athletes' psychological response to injury after engaging in written disclosure.

Design:

Repeated-measures design with 6 data-collection time points.

Setting:

Sport-injury clinics.

Participants:

9 elite long-term-injured athletes.

Measures and Intervention:

Participants were administered the Psychological Responses to Sport Injury Inventory and the Rehabilitation Beliefs Survey at 3 times preintervention and postintervention. Intervention comprised three 20-min writing sessions. Linguistic analyses were carried out using the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count to determine whether changes in word categories would be associated with postintervention changes in grief characteristics and rehabilitation-belief subscales.

Results:

There were significant differences in athletes' grief characteristics postintervention, with athletes feeling less devastated, dispirited, cheated, and restless by their injury and increasing the reorganization of their thoughts. Corresponding evidence from text analyses further supported these changes, with athletes linguistically demonstrating that they were actively working through their grief-related response using improved cognitive processing (F 2,16 = 5.15, P = .019, η2 = .39) and the disinhibition of positive and negative affect (F 2,16 = 4.05, P = .038, η2 = .34). There were no significant changes in athletes' rehabilitation beliefs, which remained high throughout the testing period.

Conclusions:

Overall, the findings demonstrated that written emotional disclosure was effective in enhancing psychological rehabilitation by contributing to a greater personal understanding of the injury event and attenuating athletes' grief-related response.

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Bradley Fawver, Garrett F. Beatty, Kelly M. Naugle, Chris J. Hass and Christopher M. Janelle

Emotional states influence whole-body movements during quiet standing, gait initiation, and steady state gait. A notable gap exists, however, in understanding how emotions affect postural changes during the period preceding the execution of planned whole-body movements. The impact of emotion-induced postural reactions on forthcoming posturomotor movements remains unknown. We sought to determine the influence of emotional reactions on center of pressure (COP) displacement before the initiation of forward gait. Participants (N = 23, 14 females) stood on a force plate and initiated forward gait at the offset of an emotional image (representing five discrete categories: attack, sad faces, erotica, happy faces, and neutral objects). COP displacement in the anteroposterior direction was quantified for a 2 second period during image presentation. Following picture onset, participants produced a posterior postural response to all image types. The greatest posterior displacement was occasioned in response to attack or threat stimuli compared with happy faces and erotica images. Results suggest the impact of emotional states on gait behavior begins during the motor planning period before the preparatory phase of gait initiation, and manifests in center of pressure displacement alterations.

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April Tripp and Terry L. Rizzo

This study assessed the affect of the label (i.e., CP) attached to a description of a child’s motor ability and teacher attributes on the variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) on two groups of elementary teachers (label and no-label). Results from a Hotelling = s T2 MANOVA showed a labeling effect. Results from a simple linear regression procedure also showed that of the teacher attributes assessed, only perceived teaching competence (p < .01) predicted favorable intentions. Support for the TpB was demonstrated for the group with the label for the social normative component (p < .000). Further analyses showed that for the group that receive that label information, only the school principal (p < .05) was associated with favorable intentions.

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Timothy M. Wohlfert and Kevin C. Miller

Focused Clinical Question Does precooling (PC) with whole-body cold water immersion (CWI) affect thermal sensation (TS) or rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise in the heat? Summary of Search, “Best Evidence” Appraised, and Key Findings • We searched for studies that compared subjects

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Miranda Brunett and René Revis Shingles

satisfaction. The studies that have examined this show that cultural competence has benefits for the patient. Focused Clinical Question Does having a culturally competent health care provider/staff member (or provider who is perceived to be culturally competent) affect the patients’ experience

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Rachael C. Stone, Shane N. Sweet, Marie-Josée Perrier, Tara MacDonald, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung

). A well-established method for displaying and interpreting the intersection of these SCM warmth and competence perceptions for diverse social groups is the behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes (BIAS) map formed via cluster analyses ( Fiske et al., 2002 ). Cluster analyses and group

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Simon Driver

The aim of the study was to provide evidence for the validity and reliability of the Physical Activity Affect Scale (PAAS; Lox, Jackson, Tuholski, Wasley, & Treasure, 2000) as a measure of exercise induced affect for adults with brain injuries. The PAAS is a 12-item measure of feeling states based on Russell’s (1980) conceptualization of affect. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on data from 193 participants with brain injuries who completed the PAAS following a single bout of exercise. Results identified four dimensions of affect (positive affect, negative affect, tranquility, and fatigue). Findings provide evidence for the validity and reliability of the PAAS as a measure of exercise induced affect for adults with brain injuries.