suggested to consider both unconscious and conscious levels of judgment, given that these two different processes often produce unique cognitive outcomes ( Greenwald, Poehlman, Uhlmann, & Banaji, 2009 ). Additionally, unconscious processes may provide a more fundamental understanding of consumers’ affective
Yonghwan Chang, Yong Jae Ko and Brad D. Carlson
George B. Cunningham, Michael Sagas, Marlene Dixon, Aubrey Kent and Brian A. Turner
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of internships on students’ career-related affect and intentions. Data were gathered from 138 upper-level undergraduate sport management students (71 interns, 67 noninterns). A doubly multivariate repeated measures model indicated that, although they did not differ at the beginning of the internship, interns had less positive attitudes toward the profession than did noninterns at the end of the internship. Structural equation modeling indicated that affective occupational commitment fully mediated the relationship between anticipated career satisfaction and intentions to enter the profession. The results contribute to the extant literature by demonstrating that internships can influence career-related affect and intentions.
Scott W. Kelley and L. W. Turley
The Super Bowl television broadcast is the premier sports viewing spectacle each year. Although large sums of advertising dollars are spent on the production and placement of Super Bowl advertisements, little is known about the content of these advertisements and the level of affect associated with various aspects of the content of Super Bowl advertisements. This study explores the content of commercials shown during the 1996-2002 Super Bowls and uses USA Today Ad Meter scores as a dependent variable. Content analysis is used to analyze the data along with follow-up analyses investigating the relationships among advertising content and affect toward the advertisement. The findings suggest that higher levels of affect are associated with advertising goods rather than services in Super Bowl advertisements, and strategies include the following: using emotional appeals, avoiding straight announcements as a message format, including animals, and not making quality claims.
Bob Heere and Geoff Dickson
Current marketing research on attitudinal constructs such as commitment and loyalty is characterized by conceptual confusion and overlap. This study aims to improve the clarity of these terms by separating the commitment and loyalty constructs. It also provides a new scale for measurement of team loyalty. Commitment is a construct that is cross-sectional in nature and is internal to the individual. Alternatively, loyalty is longitudinal in nature and should be regarded as the result of interaction between negative external changes in the environment and the individual’s internal level of commitment. The proposed scale has its origins with the Psychological Commitment to Team scale. Our revisions to the scale provide the needed longitudinal dimension. The new Attitudinal Loyalty to Team Scale (ALTS), which has resistance to change as a central feature, demonstrates both reliability and validity.
Shih-Hao Wu, Ching-Yi Daphne Tsai and Chung-Chieh Hung
This study extends literature on the effects of fan identification on fan loyalty, and antecedents that trigger such effects. This study incorporates trust, a key relationship marketing construct, in the sport industry. The relationship between trust and two other critical antecedents of sport fan loyalty, identification and vicarious achievement motive, is examined from the perspectives of both fan-player and fan-team. The results show that antecedents from distinct perspectives influence loyalty differently. Team identification (fan-team level) is the major determinant of fans’ repatronage intention, with trust in the team as the key driver. However, player identification (fan-player level) has an indirect effect, which must go through team identification to repatronage intention. Therefore, sport organizations are recommended to invest a substantial part of their resources on activities that generate long-term effects, such as trust in the team and team identification, rather than on short-term strategies such as attracting star players.
John H. Kingsbury and John M. Tauer
The authors examined the effects of individualistic media images on children’s levels of optimism toward their future basketball careers. Three hundred sixty-five participants watched highlights featuring either Black or White players performing an easy (passing) or difficult skill (slam dunking). Results indicated that participants placed a higher value on slam dunks when they watched them in a highlight tape. In addition, we found the same interaction on 3 dependent variables, such that those who viewed a same-race model performing passes felt more optimistic about playing both college and professional basketball and higher levels of positive arousal. Given Western society’s individualistic culture, the authors suggest that increased exposure to media images that promote unselfishness and teamwork would be beneficial for young athletes.
Andrea Riebock and John Bae
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the sexualized representation of female athletes in the media on the body perceptions of collegiate female athletes. The intention of the research was to examine whether such effects varied depending on college year rank and ethnicity as interrelated factors. Data were collected using questionnaires that consisted of questions addressing aspects (i.e., body shame, consequences of body shame, and goal of appearance) of selfobjectification. Overall, the results indicated that grade level and ethnicity do not play a significant role on the effects of the media on body perceptions. In conclusion, this study can be helpful to develop prevention and intervention programs for age groups and ethnicities most greatly affected by media’s objectification of female athletes.
Chris Roberts and Betsy Emmons
Sports journalists’ use of Twitter to cover live events raises questions related to institutional practices, the increased “branding” of journalists, and the work patterns and work products of journalists on a game day. College football was used as the sample sport for the researchers to analyze 2,600 tweets sent by 51 print-focused journalists covering 11 college football games on 1 Saturday. Provi ding contextual insight, the researchers interviewed 10 of the subject journalists to discern how they use Twitter for game-day coverage. Results indicate a more opinion-based use of Twitter during live reporting, shifts in reporting and writing routines, and widely varied opinions about social media’s effects on sports journalism.
Jörg Vianden and Elizabeth A. Gregg
. Despite this knowledge, both conscious and unconscious biases affect the lack of gender balance in sport management programs. Parks and Robertson ( 2002 ) found that white male students in sport management programs perceive themselves to be the dominant group and tend to perpetuate existing hegemonic
Megan B. Shreffler, Adam R. Cocco and Jacob R. Shreffler
setting offers the opportunity for nearly immediate feedback. This is imperative, as the feedback allows students to effectively process the service learning experience. More recent research by McNiff and Aicher ( 2017 ) suggested that growth in online learning may affect sport participation and the