Physical activity affect refers to a person’s acute exercise-induced psychological and emotional status ( Ekkekakis, 2013 ; Lox, Jackson, Tuholski, Wasley, & Treasure, 2000 ). Components of physical activity affect include positive affect (PA—energetic, enthusiastic, and upbeat), negative affect
Paul E. Yeatts, Ronald Davis, Jun Oh and Gwang-Yon Hwang
April Tripp and Terry L. Rizzo
This study assessed the affect of the label (i.e., CP) attached to a description of a child’s motor ability and teacher attributes on the variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) on two groups of elementary teachers (label and no-label). Results from a Hotelling = s T2 MANOVA showed a labeling effect. Results from a simple linear regression procedure also showed that of the teacher attributes assessed, only perceived teaching competence (p < .01) predicted favorable intentions. Support for the TpB was demonstrated for the group with the label for the social normative component (p < .000). Further analyses showed that for the group that receive that label information, only the school principal (p < .05) was associated with favorable intentions.
Rachael C. Stone, Shane N. Sweet, Marie-Josée Perrier, Tara MacDonald, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung
). A well-established method for displaying and interpreting the intersection of these SCM warmth and competence perceptions for diverse social groups is the behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes (BIAS) map formed via cluster analyses ( Fiske et al., 2002 ). Cluster analyses and group
The aim of the study was to provide evidence for the validity and reliability of the Physical Activity Affect Scale (PAAS; Lox, Jackson, Tuholski, Wasley, & Treasure, 2000) as a measure of exercise induced affect for adults with brain injuries. The PAAS is a 12-item measure of feeling states based on Russell’s (1980) conceptualization of affect. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on data from 193 participants with brain injuries who completed the PAAS following a single bout of exercise. Results identified four dimensions of affect (positive affect, negative affect, tranquility, and fatigue). Findings provide evidence for the validity and reliability of the PAAS as a measure of exercise induced affect for adults with brain injuries.
Jeffrey J. Martin
In the current study, variables grounded in social cognitive theory with athletes with disabilities were examined. Performance, training, resiliency, and thought control self-efficacy, and positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect were examined with wheelchair basketball athletes (N = 79). Consistent with social cognitive theory, weak to strong significant relationships among the four types of self-efficacy (rs = .22–.78) and among self-efficacy and affect (rs = -.40–.29) were found. Basketball players who were efficacious in their ability to overcome training barriers were also confident in their basketball skills and efficacious in their ability to overcome ruminating distressing thoughts while simultaneously cultivating positive thoughts. Athletes with strong resiliency and thought control efficacy also reported more PA and less NA. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the four efficacies predicted 10 and 22% of the variance in PA and NA, respectively.
Peter R.E. Crocker and Marcel Bouffard
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between cognitive appraisal and self-reported affect during challenging physical activity by 55 adults (16 females, 39 males) with physical disabilities. Eleven cognitive appraisals related to perceived challenge in physical activity plus positive and negative affect experienced in a recent challenging physical activity were assessed in an interview. The data indicated that perceived challenge was characterized by higher levels of positive affect (M=4.03, SD=.71) compared to negative affect (M=1.54, SD=.61). Correlational analyses revealed that the appraisals of fitness and health, learning skills, demonstrating competence, effort, social approval, task value, and external control were all significantly related to positive affect. A regression analysis for positive affect revealed that a two-term equation using task value and social approval could account for 39% of the variance. No appraisals were significantly related to negative affect.
Marina M. Schoemaker and Alex F. Kalverboer
The purpose of this study was to examine the social and affective concomitants of clumsiness in children. The results suggest that children who are clumsy are more introverted than children without movement problems, judge themselves to be less competent both physically and socially, and are significantly more anxious. However, when the relationship between severity of clumsiness and social or affective problems was investigated, only socially negative behavior was shown to be less common in the children who were most severely clumsy. No other aspect of social or affective functioning was related to the degree of clumsiness. Although some patterns were detected among social and affective problems, the overall picture was rather heterogeneous. The implications of the results for development and intervention are discussed.
Terry L. Rizzo and Don R. Kirkendall
This study assessed the association between demographic attributes (gender, age, year in school, experience with students with disabilities, perceived competence in teaching students with disabilities, and academic preparation regarding individuals with disabilities) of undergraduate physical education majors and their attitudes toward teaching students labeled educable mentally retarded (EMR), learning disabled (LD), and behaviorally disordered (BD). Future physical educators (n = 226) were asked to complete the Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching the Handicapped questionnaire, and 174 (77%) agreed. Data were collected on the first day of classes of a 16-week semester. Results from forward stepwise multiple-regression procedures showed that perceived competence and academic preparation regarding individuals with disabilities were the best predictors of favorable attitudes in general, and for EMR and LD. Results also showed that for BD, age and year in school were the best predictors of favorable attitudes. Thus, attitudes vary as a function of disabling conditions. The results provide evidence that there is a need to promote positive attitudes toward teaching individuals with disabilities.
Peter R. Giacobbi Jr., Brent Hardin, Nancy Frye, Heather A. Hausenblas, Sam Sears and Amber Stegelin
We assessed within- and between-person associations among appraisals of daily life events, positive and negative affective states, and exercise behavior and the moderating role of personality for the exercise/affect relationship with individuals with physical disabilities. Forty-eight individuals with physical disabilities completed measures of personality and daily assessments of affect, exercise, and cognitive appraisals of life events for eight consecutive days. The results revealed that exercise behavior was associated with increased positive and decreased negative affect even when associations between daily events and affect were statistically controlled. Finally, aspects of personality, especially Neuroticism, significantly moderated the exercise/affect relationship for both positive and negative affect.
Kwok Ng, Jorma Tynjälä, Dagmar Sigmundová, Lilly Augustine, Mariane Sentenac, Pauli Rintala and Jo Inchley
medical condition (like diabetes, arthritis, allergy, or cerebral palsy) that has been diagnosed by a doctor?” and (2) “Does your long-term illness or disability affect your attendance and participation at school?” Students were classified into three mutually exclusive categories: (a) adolescents without