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Andrew Renfree, Julia West, Mark Corbett, Clare Rhoden and Alan St Clair Gibson

Purpose:

This study examined the determinants of pacing strategy and performance during self-paced maximal exercise.

Methods:

Eight well-trained cyclists completed two 20-km time trials. Power output, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), positive and negative affect, and iEMG activity of the active musculature were recorded every 0.5 km, confidence in achieving preexercise goals was assessed every 5 km, and blood lactate and pH were measured postexercise. Differences in all parameters were assessed between fastest (FAST) and slowest (SLOW) trials performed.

Results:

Mean power output was significantly higher during the initial 90% of FAST, but not the final 10%, and blood lactate concentration was significantly higher and pH significantly lower following FAST. Mean iEMG activity was significantly higher throughout SLOW. Rating of perceived exertion was similar throughout both trials, but participants had significantly more positive affect and less negative affect throughout FAST. Participants grew less confident in their ability to achieve their goals throughout SLOW.

Conclusions:

The results suggest that affect may be the primary psychological regulator of pacing strategy and that higher levels of positivity and lower levels of negativity may have been associated with a more aggressive strategy during FAST. Although the exact mechanisms through which affect acts to influence performance are unclear, it may determine the degree of physiological disruption that can be tolerated, or be reflective of peripheral physiological status in relation to the still to be completed exercise task.

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Paul E. Yeatts, Ronald Davis, Jun Oh and Gwang-Yon Hwang

Physical activity affect refers to a person’s acute exercise-induced psychological and emotional status ( Ekkekakis, 2013 ; Lox, Jackson, Tuholski, Wasley, & Treasure, 2000 ). Components of physical activity affect include positive affect (PA—energetic, enthusiastic, and upbeat), negative affect

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April Tripp and Terry L. Rizzo

This study assessed the affect of the label (i.e., CP) attached to a description of a child’s motor ability and teacher attributes on the variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) on two groups of elementary teachers (label and no-label). Results from a Hotelling = s T2 MANOVA showed a labeling effect. Results from a simple linear regression procedure also showed that of the teacher attributes assessed, only perceived teaching competence (p < .01) predicted favorable intentions. Support for the TpB was demonstrated for the group with the label for the social normative component (p < .000). Further analyses showed that for the group that receive that label information, only the school principal (p < .05) was associated with favorable intentions.

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Júlio A. Costa, João Brito, Fábio Y. Nakamura, Eduardo M. Oliveira, Ovidio P. Costa and António N. Rebelo

frequency [HF, in milliseconds squared]) were significantly altered compared with rest days. Interestingly, in a recent study 6 it was shown that late-night soccer training did not affect HRV indices, using the “hour-by-hour” method (recording all RR intervals over the night sleep) as proposed by Myllymaki

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Rachael C. Stone, Shane N. Sweet, Marie-Josée Perrier, Tara MacDonald, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung

). A well-established method for displaying and interpreting the intersection of these SCM warmth and competence perceptions for diverse social groups is the behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes (BIAS) map formed via cluster analyses ( Fiske et al., 2002 ). Cluster analyses and group

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Simon Driver

The aim of the study was to provide evidence for the validity and reliability of the Physical Activity Affect Scale (PAAS; Lox, Jackson, Tuholski, Wasley, & Treasure, 2000) as a measure of exercise induced affect for adults with brain injuries. The PAAS is a 12-item measure of feeling states based on Russell’s (1980) conceptualization of affect. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on data from 193 participants with brain injuries who completed the PAAS following a single bout of exercise. Results identified four dimensions of affect (positive affect, negative affect, tranquility, and fatigue). Findings provide evidence for the validity and reliability of the PAAS as a measure of exercise induced affect for adults with brain injuries.

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Blair Crewther, Konrad Witek, Paweł Draga, Piotr Zmijewski and Zbigniew Obmiński

regular resistance training did not affect total and free T concentrations ( Melville et al., 2015 ; Rodgers et al., 2016 ; Willoughby & Leutholtz, 2013 ; Willoughby et al., 2014 ). In fact, blood levels of total and free T actually decreased at a higher daily dose (6 g/day; Melville et al., 2015

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Jeffrey J. Martin

In the current study, variables grounded in social cognitive theory with athletes with disabilities were examined. Performance, training, resiliency, and thought control self-efficacy, and positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect were examined with wheelchair basketball athletes (N = 79). Consistent with social cognitive theory, weak to strong significant relationships among the four types of self-efficacy (rs = .22–.78) and among self-efficacy and affect (rs = -.40–.29) were found. Basketball players who were efficacious in their ability to overcome training barriers were also confident in their basketball skills and efficacious in their ability to overcome ruminating distressing thoughts while simultaneously cultivating positive thoughts. Athletes with strong resiliency and thought control efficacy also reported more PA and less NA. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the four efficacies predicted 10 and 22% of the variance in PA and NA, respectively.

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Fred Brouns, Mikael Fogelholm, Gerrit van Hall, Anton Wagenmakers and Wim H.M. Saris

This study tested the hypothesis that a 3-week oral lactate supplementation affects postexercise blood lactate disappearance in untrained male subjects. Fifteen men were randomly assigned to either a lactate supplementation (n = 8) or a placebo (n = 7) treatment. During the treatment period they drank an oral lactate or a maltodextrin (placebo) supplement twice a day. The lactate drink contained 10 g of lactate as calcium, sodium, and potassium salts. Blood lactate concentrations were studied before, during, and immediately after three exercise tests, both pre-and posttreatment. Peak lactate values for placebo (PL) or lactate (L) treatment groups during different tests were as follows: Test 1 PL, 13.49 ± 3.71; L, 13.70 ± 1.90; Test 2 PL, 12.64 ± 2.32; L, 12.00 ± 2.23; Test 3 PL, 12.29 ± 2.92; L, 11.35 ± 1.38 and were reached 3 min postexercise. The decrease in blood lactate during the long (30- to 45-min) recovery periods amounted to @ 10 mmol/L. Blood lactate changes were highly reproducible. However, a 3-week oral lactate supplementation did not result in differences in lactate disappearance. This study does not support the hypothesis that regular oral lactate intake at rest enhances the removal of lactate during and following exercise, that is, not with the given lactate load and supplementation period.

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Micah Gross, Kathrin Bieri, Hans Hoppeler, Barbara Norman and Michael Vogt

Introduction:

Supplementation with beta-alanine may have positive effects on severe-intensity, intermittent, and isometric strength-endurance performance. These could be advantageous for competitive alpine skiers, whose races last 45 to 150 s, require metabolic power above the aerobic maximum, and involve isometric muscle work. Further, beta-alanine supplementation affects the muscle force-frequency relationship, which could influence explosiveness. We explored the effects of beta-alanine on explosive jump performance, severe exercise energy metabolism, and severe-intensity ski-like performance.

Methods:

Nine male elite alpine skiers consumed 4.8 g/d beta-alanine or placebo for 5 weeks in a double-blind fashion. Before and after, they performed countermovement jumps (CMJ), a 90-s cycling bout at 110% VO2max (CLT), and a maximal 90-s box jump test (BJ90).

Results:

Beta-alanine improved maximal (+7 ± 3%, d = 0.9) and mean CMJ power (+7 ± 2%, d = 0.7), tended to reduce oxygen deficit (-3 ± 8%, p = .06) and lactate accumulation (-12 ± 31%) and enhance aerobic energy contribution (+1.3 ± 2.9%, p = .07) in the CLT, and improved performance in the last third of BJ90 (+7 ± 4%, p = .02). These effects were not observed with placebo.

Conclusions:

Beta-alanine supplementation improved explosive and repeated jump performance in elite alpine skiers. Enhanced muscle contractility could possibly explain improved explosive and repeated jump performance. Increased aerobic energy production could possibly help explain repeated jump performance as well.