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Deepika Singla and M. Ejaz Hussain

. 20 Improvement in the parameters of balance, strength, and power has been observed if plyometric exercises are performed regularly. 21 , 22 The varying effects of MPBT on the muscle activity, upper body balance, upper body power, and muscle strength (MS) in cricketers of different age groups have

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Brian A. Blanksby, Jennifer R. Simpson, Bruce C. Elliott and Keith McElroy

Because turning can account for one-third of breaststroke race time in 25 m pools, it is possible that enhancing turning techniques can improve performance significantly. Underwater video cameras and a force platform were used to analyze turning techniques of 23 age-group breaststrokers during three 50 m push-start, maximum-effort swims. The criterion measure was the time elapsed between passing the 5 m mark on the approach and departure from the wall (5 m round-trip time [RTT]). Correlations revealed significant commonality of variance (p < .01) between the 5 m RTT and the 2.5 m RTT, 50 m time, average single-stroke velocity, peak reaction force, pivot time, impulse, peak horizontal velocity off the wall, arm and leg split-stroke resumption distances, surfacing distance, surfacing time, and horizontal velocity, height, and mass of the subjects. All swimmers achieved a net gain at the turn in that the mean 5 m RTT (20% of the distance) represented 18.26% of the total swimming time. Following stepwise regression, a successful turn was predicted by the equation 17.113 - 0.322 surfacing distance - 0.036 height - 0.723 surfacing horizontal velocity + 0.723 pivot time - 0.65 peak horizontal velocity.

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Pedro Figueiredo, Ana Silva, António Sampaio, João Paulo Vilas-Boas and Ricardo J. Fernandes

The aim of this study was to evaluate the determinants of front crawl sprint performance of young swimmers using a cluster analysis. 103 swimmers, aged 11- to 13-years old, performed 25-m front crawl swimming at 50-m pace, recorded by two underwater cameras. Swimmers analysis included biomechanics, energetics, coordinative, and anthropometric characteristics. The organization of subjects in meaningful clusters, originated three groups (1.52 ± 0.16, 1.47 ± 0.17 and 1.40 ± 0.15 m/s, for Clusters 1, 2 and 3, respectively) with differences in velocity between Cluster 1 and 2 compared with Cluster 3 (p = .003). Anthropometric variables were the most determinants for clusters solution. Stroke length and stroke index were also considered relevant. In addition, differences between Cluster 1 and the others were also found for critical velocity, stroke rate and intracycle velocity variation (p < .05). It can be concluded that anthropometrics, technique and energetics (swimming efficiency) are determinant domains to young swimmers sprint performance.

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Javier Raya-González, Luis Suárez-Arrones, Archit Navandar, Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández and Eduardo Sáez de Villarreal

number of injuries per 1000 hours of training and overall, and U15 players sustained the highest number of injuries per 1000 hours of matches. On the other hand, another study 12 observed that the greatest time loss per injury was in the U14 to U15 age groups, and the highest rate of severe injuries was

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Isaac Estevan, Sergio Gandia, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, José Luis Bermejo and Xavier García-Massó

purpose of this study was thus to examine postural stability and cognitive function according to the difficulty increment of a WMT and age group in typically developing adolescents. As it was found that the greater the difficulty of the WMT, the lower the available attentional resources ( Olivier et

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Ken Pitetti, Ruth Ann Miller and E. Michael Loovis

adolescents with developmental disabilities. Data Analysis Data were collected over a 6-year period. Some participants were evaluated 2–6 times as they advanced in age group (Table  3 ). Previous work has established that BOT test scores assessed on a yearly basis are not influenced by a practice effect in

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Senia Smoot Reinert, Allison L. Kinney, Kurt Jackson, Wiebke Diestelkamp and Kimberly Bigelow

between fallers and nonfallers. Perhaps, by modifying how the Limits of Stability test is performed and/or how the results are analyzed, differences could be more easily identified. Additionally, if there are significant variations in Limits of Stability performance between age groups, averaging the

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Hardeep Singh, Mark Lee, Matthew J. Solomito, Christian Merrill and Carl Nissen

time spent in lumbar extension during the pitching motion. This study utilizes a cross-sectional design to determine if there are differences in lumbar spine motion during the pitch cycle across various age groups. It was hypothesized that college-age pitchers would experience a greater degree of

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Remco J. Baggen, Jaap H. van Dieën, Sabine M. Verschueren, Evelien Van Roie and Christophe Delecluse

excitation may be partly accounted for by differences in the thickness of subcutaneous fat layers and skin impedance, 3 which is why signal normalization is essential when comparing between age groups. Nevertheless, these confounders would be expected to have an equal impact on maximum voluntary excitation

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Christopher K. Rhea, Jed A. Diekfuss, Jeffrey T. Fairbrother and Louisa D. Raisbeck

potential age differences in this context is due to sensory integration differences previously observed between younger and older adults ( Redfern, Jennings, Martin, & Furman, 2001 )—indicating that observations for one age group may (or may not) generalize to another age group. Our primary hypothesis was