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Thomas A. Perks

confounding age and cohort effects, where researchers use differences between age groups to make possibly erroneous generalizations about change over time. By contrast, studies using longitudinal data—which are required if one wishes to assess how individuals change—offer more qualified assessments. However

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S. Jill Black and Maureen R. Weiss

Based on Barter's competence motivation theory, this study examined the relationships between perceived coaching behaviors and (a) perceptions of ability and (b) motivation in competitive age-group swimmers. Male and female athletes (N=312) assessed their coaches' behaviors and their own ability and motivation using self-report measures. Multivariate analyses indicated that significant relationships were found for males, females, 12–14-year-olds, and 15-18-year-olds. Variables contributing most importantly to the relationships differed depending upon gender and age group. In general, coaches who were perceived as giving more frequent information following desirable performances, and more frequent encouragement combined with information following undesirable performances, were associated with athletes who perceived higher levels of success, competence, enjoyment, and preference for optimally challenging activities. These results indicate that young athletes' self-perceptions and motivation are significantly related to the quantity and quality of coaching feedback they receive for performance successes and errors.

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Leonard M. Wankel and Philip S.J. Kreisel

A 10-item Thurstonian paired comparison inventory pertaining to factors underlying sport enjoyment was administered to 822 youth sport participants. The sample included participants at four age levels (7-8, 9-10, 11-12, and 13-14 years) from the three sports, soccer (n = 330), baseball (n = 176), and hockey (n = 343). Considerable consistency was found across both sport and age levels in the relative importance of the different enjoyment factors. Factors that were interpreted as being intrinsic to the sport activity (excitement of the sport, personal accomplishment, improving one's skills, testing skills against others, and just doing the skills) were consistently rated as being most important, whereas more extrinsic or outcome-related factors (pleasing others, winning rewards, winning the game) were consistently rated least important of the 10 factors. The social items “being on a team” and “being with friends” were consistently of intermediate importance. The results are interpreted in terms of contemporary views of intrinsic motivation, and suggestions are offered both for future research and for youth sport practice.

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Yoav Gimmon, Hisham Rashad, Ilan Kurz, Meir Plotnik, Raziel Riemer, Ronen Debi, Amir Shapiro and Itshak Melzer

adults may result from slower walking speeds ( Maki, 1997 ) or possibly from other factors related to aging. In most research studies on the aging populations, subjects are usually grouped into one older group spanning several decades. In this study, we investigate gait within an aging group, as well as

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Danielle Nesbitt, Sergio Molina, Ryan Sacko, Leah E. Robinson, Ali Brian and David Stodden

void in understanding not only how movement development occurs, but also in how it relates to health across various ages. Thus, it is logical and necessary to identify developmentally valid and reliable motor competence assessments that can be effectively implemented across various age groups. The

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Nicola Brown and Yasmin Bowmer

survey of 1885 women across age groups (teens, 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, and 60+) revealed that across all ages ‘toned and fit’ was the common motivator ( Gavin, Keough, Abravanel, Mourdrakovski, & Mcbreaty, 2014 ). It is recognized that beginning exercise earlier in life can extend life expectancy and improve

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Vítor Pires Lopes, Linda Saraiva, Celina Gonçalves and Luis P. Rodrigues

differences between boys and girls in each age group and between age groups within each sex, in actual and perceived motor competence. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to analyze the association between actual and perceived motor competence by sex and age group. All statistical tests were

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Rachel Cole, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Alison Carver, Neville Owen and Takemi Sugiyama

are more closely associated with older adults’ physical activity than they are to younger adults’ activity. However, few studies have directly examined whether and how age groups may differ in the positive associations of environmental factors with physical activity. Shigematsu et al. ( 2009

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Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Wendy J. Brown, Tina L. Skinner and G.M.E.E. (Geeske) Peeters

values were estimated for adults in 3 age groups (55–64, 65–74, and 75–99 y) and compared with those published in the CPA. Methods Participants were recruited using flyers and recruitment notices circulated through e-mail and letters within a network of volunteers and the university community. The

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Christina M. Patch, Caterina G. Roman, Terry L. Conway, Ralph B. Taylor, Kavita A. Gavand, Brian E. Saelens, Marc A. Adams, Kelli L. Cain, Jessa K. Engelberg, Lauren Mayes, Scott C. Roesch and James F. Sallis

A common hypothesis is that crime impedes physical activity, but research does not consistently support this assumption. Literature reviews across age groups have revealed inconsistencies in the relationships between crime-related safety and physical activity. 1 – 4 In a review of 41 studies, 22