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Karen S. Meaney and Sonya L. Armstrong

that may ultimately decrease individual and organizational productivity and eventually trigger the victim’s exodus from the corporation, agency, or institution ( Namie, 2003 , 2014 ). Aggressive behaviors are overtly or covertly directed to an employee (victim) by another employee (bully). Workplace

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Lori W. Tucker and Janet B. Parks

This study examined 162 Division I-A intercollegiate athletes’ perceptions of the legitimacy of aggression in sport. Athletes in collision, contact, and noncontact sports completed the Sport Behavior Inventory (Conroy, Silva, Newcomer, Walker, & Johnson, in press). Overall, the athletes did not consider aggression legitimate. A 3 (sport type) x 2 (gender) ANOVA (alpha = .05) with post hoc comparisons showed that athletes in contact and noncontact sports scored lower than those in collision sports. Females scored lower than males. A significant interaction revealed a greater gender difference in noncontact sports than in collision or contact. In noncontact sports, gender role expectations could be the dominant influence for males, while role expectations and in-sport behavioral norms influence females. In collision and contact sports, in-sport norms could reinforce role expectations for males but encourage females to demonstrate behaviors inconsistent with traditional expectations.

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Article Fit and Flexible: The Fitness Industry, Personal Trainers and Emotional Service Labor Jennifer Smith Maguire * 12 2001 18 4 379 402 10.1123/ssj.18.4.379 Effects of Gender and Sport Type on Intercollegiate Athletes’ Perceptions of the Legitimacy of Aggressive Behaviors in Sport Lori W

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Megan Apse, Roslyn Kerr and Kevin Moore

and the use of signage, directed at tempering inappropriate or aggressive behavior toward children, game officials, and other spectators ( New Zealand Rugby League, 2019 ). Discourse(s) In line with the discursive psychological approach adopted for this article, we view discourse about the beliefs

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Fernando Segura Millan Trejo, Mark Norman and Chirstophe Jaccoud

machismo permeates society and football is traditionally a space reserved for the hegemony of men in the slums, it is difficult for girls to participate. Those that do so adopt aggressive behaviors to make a place for themselves and be respected. Through Football3, we try to create different dynamics

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Jamie Cleland, Stacey Pope and John Williams

women and what defines the former’s superiority. Those women who enact characteristics associated with “hegemonic masculinity”—for example, by exhibiting sexual desire for other women, being promiscuous, sexually inaccessible, or showing aggressive behavior—are necessarily labeled as performing “pariah

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Ben Larkin and Janet S. Fink

negatively on the individual. We turn our attention to this idea in the following section. Team Identification and Aggression Team identification has long been associated with aggressive behavior as a coping strategy leveraged by sport fans. Wann and Branscombe ( 1990 ) noted that when highly identified fans

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Wonseok Jang, Yong Jae Ko, Daniel L. Wann and Daehwan Kim

, Mead, & Ariely, 2011 ), creative ( Price & Yates, 2015 ), and aggressive behaviors (e.g., Stucke & Baumeister, 2006 ). In addition, research has shown that energy influenced ability to perform cognitively oriented tasks (e.g., Choi & Fishbach, 2011 ) and SWB, such as life satisfaction (e.g., Kasser

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Akira Asada and Yong Jae Ko

literature has focused primarily on positive aspects of sport socialization, it could also cause negative results in society. When sports fans gather together, they sometimes exhibit aggressive behaviors, including verbal abuse, fighting, assault, vandalism, and riot ( Russell, 2004 ; Spaaij, 2014 ). For

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Tywan G. Martin, Jessica Wallace, Young Ik Suh, Kysha Harriell and Justin Tatman

to the head ( Laskas, 2009 ). A more recent study of former NFL players diagnosed 110 of the 111 brains examined with CTE ( Mez et al., 2017 ). Former NFL players linked to the diagnosis of CTE have suffered from symptoms such as depression, memory loss, and aggressive behavior. Although CTE is of