, birdwatching, rodeo, hunting, dogsled racing, angling, bullfighting and dog and cat agility. In both professional and amateur sport, spectators, athletes, and competitive eaters consume nonhuman animals as food and use equipment made from nonhuman animal bodies. The interlocking relationships animals share
Gina Sobrero, Scott Arnett, Mark Schafer, Whitley Stone, T. A. Tolbert, Amanda Salyer-Funk, Jason Crandall, Lauren B. Farley, Josh Brown, Scott Lyons, Travis Esslinger, Keri Esslinger and Jill Maples
High intensity functional training (HIFT) emphasizes constantly varied, high intensity, functional activity by programming strength and conditioning exercises, gymnastics, Olympic weightlifting, and specialty movements. Conversely, traditional circuit training (TCT) programs aim to improve muscular fitness by utilizing the progressive overload principle, similar movements weekly, and specified work-to-rest ratios. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if differences exist in health and performance measures in women participating in HIFT or TCT after a six-week training program. Recreationally active women were randomly assigned to a HIFT (n = 8, age 26.0 + 7.3 yrs) or TCT (n = 11, age 26.3 + 9.6 yrs) group. Participants trained three days a week for six weeks with certified trainers. Investigators examined body composition (BC), aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscular strength, endurance, flexibility, power, and agility. Repeated-measures ANOVA were used for statistical analyses with an alpha level of 0.05. Both groups increased body mass (p = .011), and improved muscular endurance (p < .000), upper body strength (p = .007), lower body power (p = .029) and agility (p = .003). In addition, the HIFT group decreased body fat (BF) %, while the TCT group increased BF% (p = .011). No changes were observed in aerobic or anaerobic capacity, flexibility, upper body power, or lower body stair climbing power. Newer, high intensity functional exercise programs such as HIFT may have better results on BC and similar effects when compared with TCT programs on health and fitness variables such as musculoskeletal strength and performance.
Morphological parameters (stature, weight, segment lengths, diameters, circumferences, body composition), functional characteristics (work capacity, respiratory performance, static strength of hand) and aspects of health- and skill-related fitness (explosive strength, speed, anaerobic and aerobic endurance, agility) of 141 well-trained young female field hockey players (10 to 18 y) were examined and analyzed. The main purpose of the investigation was to study growth trends of these parameters of female field hockey players and to analyze the character and feature of their development.
Standard anthropometric measurements were used for evaluation of morphological characteristics. Matiegka’s equations were used for computation of body composition’s parameters. Modification of the Harvard step test was used for estimation of physical capacity. Respiratory performance was evaluated using vitalograph. Static strength of the hands was obtained using a handgrip. Characteristics of health- and skill-related fitness were evaluated using the following test battery: standing broad jump, 30 m dash run, flying 30 m test, 210 yards shuttle run, 2000 m run, push-ups and 20 m zig-zag run.
Results of the study were as follows: the functional characteristics have the greatest total increase (about 108-144 %) during the age span considered (from 10 to 18 years). Stature and other length parameters increased about 18-20 %. The periods of the acceleration of increases in morphological parameters precede the periods of the sizable increases in functional parameters. Based upon the analysis of aspects of health- and skill-related fitness of players training and practicing in hockey has a beneficial effect on this group of characteristics. Based on the results of the study, the optimum periods for speed, strength and endurance training of female hockey players are exposed.
Kelsey Dow, Robert Pritchett, Karen Roemer and Kelly Pritchett
exercise performance (vertical jump test [standing and with an approach], L-run agility test, and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1), (2) subjective measures of recovery, and (3) rehydration measures in female athletes. Methods Participants Participants included female athletes ( n = 10
Clayton R. Kuklick and Brian T. Gearity
participants also thought variable geographic training could entail moving cones for conditioning and agility sessions off the lines on the turf or grass fields. Different paths and angles outside of the normally linear, structured space would be used, and athletes would be challenged to perceive space and
Mark L. Latash
drop in ΔV) may be viewed as indices of agility. Within a recent scheme on the control of multielement actions ( Latash et al., 2005 ), there are two types of neural variables. One of them, NV1, defines patterns of performance that can be seen in averaged-across-trials signals. The other, NV2, defines
Richard B. Kreider
.g., dynamic warm-up, flexibility training), resistance training, cardiovascular conditioning, core/stability training, and/or speed and agility training ( Clayton et al., 2016 ; Evans, 2019 ; Haff & Tripplett, 2016; Sands et al., 2012). Conditioning programs typically involve speed (e.g., linear, sprinting
imitate genuine sports but without any associated physical activity. Although video games necessitate levels of coordination and agility, eSports only require excellent fine motor movements as the eSport athlete operates the handheld controller. Alternatively, motion-based video games employ motion
Rachel Arnold, David Fletcher and Jennifer A. Hobson
organizations should support leader-managers in developing leadership agility (cf. McKenzie & Aitken, 2012 ), so they can flex their characteristics and display those that are most appropriate in a given situation. Specifically, McKenzie and Aitken ( 2012 ) suggest various leadership agility practices for
Jesse King and Robert Madrigal
requires a type of mental agility that is in itself a creative process ( Hofstadter, 1995 ; Holyoak & Thagard, 1995 ; Johnson-Laird, 1989 ; Thagard & Stewart, 2011 ; Veale, 2006 ). An analogy is creative when it resolves perceptions of incongruity by allowing previously unnoticed structural parallels