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Daniel J. Brinkmann, Harald Koerger, Albert Gollhofer and Dominic Gehring

Agility running is a key component of soccer performance and includes accelerations, decelerations, changes of direction, and initiations of whole-body movements. 1 The frequency of such soccer-specific movements (>700 cuts and turns within a match by a player in the English football association

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Tania Spiteri, Nicolas H. Hart and Sophia Nimphius

The aim of this study was to compare biomechanical and perceptual-cognitive variables between sexes during an offensive and defensive agility protocol. Twelve male and female (n = 24) recreational team sport athletes participated in this study, each performing 12 offensive and defensive agility trials (6 left, 6 right) changing direction in response to movements of a human stimulus. Three-dimensional motion, ground reaction force (GRF), and impulse data were recorded across plant phase for dominant leg change of direction (COD) movements, while timing gates and high-speed video captured decision time, total running time, and post COD stride velocity. Subjects also performed a unilateral isometric squat to determine lower body strength and limb dominance. Group (sex) by condition (2 × 2) MANOVAs with follow-up ANOVAs were conducted to examine differences between groups (P ≤ .05). Male athletes demonstrated significantly greater lower body strength, vertical braking force and impulse application, knee and spine flexion, and hip abduction, as well as faster decision time and post COD stride velocity during both agility conditions compared with females. Differences between offensive and defensive movements appear to be attributed to differences in decision time between sexes. This study demonstrates that biomechanical and perceptual-cognitive differences exist between sexes and within offensive and defensive agility movements.

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Guillaume Mornieux, Elmar Weltin, Monika Pauls, Franz Rott and Albert Gollhofer

agility with the 5-10-5 yards test, jump height, ie, leg muscle power, with countermovement jumps (CMJ) and core strength with a cable lift test. This latter test targets the action of hips, torso rotators, upper back, chest, and shoulders while turning the trunk away from the strength machine as the

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Sean J. Maloney, Anthony N. Turner and Stuart Miller

It has previously been shown that a loaded warm-up may improve power performances. We examined the acute effects of loaded dynamic warm-up on change of direction speed (CODS), which had not been previously investigated. Eight elite badminton players participated in three sessions during which they performed vertical countermovement jump and CODS tests before and after undertaking the dynamic warm-up. The three warm-up conditions involved wearing a weighted vest (a) equivalent to 5% body mass, (b) equivalent to 10% body mass, and (c) a control where a weighted vest was not worn. Vertical jump and CODS performances were then tested at 15 seconds and 2, 4, and 6 minutes post warm-up. Vertical jump and CODS significantly improved following all warm-up conditions (P < .05). Post warm-up vertical jump performance was not different between conditions (P = .430). Post warm-up CODS was significantly faster following the 5% (P = .02) and 10% (P < .001) loaded conditions compared with the control condition. In addition, peak CODS test performances, independent of recovery time, were faster than the control condition following the 10% loaded condition (P = .012). In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that a loaded warm-up augmented CODS, but not vertical jump performance, in elite badminton players.

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Richard C. Nelson, Ted S. Gross and Glenn M. Street

The purpose of this report was to provide a model analysis of biomechanical films taken during the women's gymnastic vaulting events of the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Games. Although a majority of the optional vaults were filmed, only the 16 vaults performed by the competitors in the individual championships were examined. The analysis included calculations of temporal, spatial, and velocity parameters as the gymnast's center of mass moved through four phases of the vault. The phases were identified as Reuther board contact, prehorse flight, horse contact, and posthorse flight. A representative profile of a female gymnast competing in the Games was compiled based on these parameters. This profile indicated that the gymnasts were much smaller than the average population, efficient in the use of the Reuther board and the horse to reach and maintain CM velocities necessary to complete the vault, and agile enough to perform complex airborne rotations during an average posthorse flight duration of .80s.

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Wing-Kai Lam, Winson Chiu-Chun Lee, Wei Min Lee, Christina Zong-Hao Ma and Pui Wah Kong

potential to enhance sport performance such as forward acceleration, jumping, and agility tasks. 1 – 3 Stefanyshyn and colleagues 1 found an improvement in maximum-effort sprint performance when participants ran in shoes inserted with very stiff carbon plates at the soles compared with those without. It

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Fabian Mager, Jim Richards, Malika Hennies, Eugen Dötzel, Ambreen Chohan, Alex Mbuli and Felix Capanni

stiffness compared with running in conventional shoes. Whereas Park et al 8 found no influence of a stiffened forefoot shoe on agility time and lower limb kinematics while playing badminton. However, these authors used a single segment foot model, which did not allow for the consideration of

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Matt Greig

of soccer match-play is used, 16 which has previously been shown to induce changes in agility kinematics. 17 This same exercise protocol has been shown to influence the electromyographical response of the thigh musculature during running 16 and impair eccentric knee flexor strength. 18 The

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John R. Harry, Max R. Paquette, Brian K. Schilling, Leland A. Barker, C. Roger James and Janet S. Dufek

The countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ) is a useful physical performance test to evaluate athletic potential 1 – 3 due to its strong positive correlation to speed, power, agility, and strength performance. 2 – 6 Because of this strong relationship, researchers and practitioners aim to understand

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Jonathan D. Connor, Robert G. Crowther and Wade H. Sinclair

agility techniques in Australian Rules football . Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 14 ( 1 ), 65 – 69 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2010.06.002 10.1016/j.jsams.2010.06.002 Brault , S. , Bideau , B. , Kulpa , R. , & Craig , C. ( 2009 ). Detecting deceptive movement in 1 vs. 1 based on