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Jacob A. Jones

Self-concept theory was used as a theoretical basis to investigate the utility of social norms alcohol prevention programs for college athletes. The predictive relationship among alcohol use and athletic identity, competitiveness, drinking game participation, and level of sport participation was investigated. Drinking game participation was found to be a significant predictor of total weekly alcohol use above and beyond the other predictors. In addition, organized recreational sport participation was a significant predictor of total binge-drinking episodes. It was demonstrated that individuals not currently participating in sports with an athletic identity in the same range as current athletes consumed alcohol at similar rates to current athletes, thus supporting athletic identity as an alternative way of classifying athlete status when studying alcohol consumption patterns. These results highlight the importance of drinking game participation in the alcohol use of college athletes and the validity of applying self-concept theory to alcohol prevention programs.

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Dawn M. Emerson, Toni M. Torres-McGehee, Susan W. Yeargin, Kyle Dolan and Kelcey K. deWeber

Sports Medicine’s fluid replacement statement, 2 discusses the effects caffeine and alcohol can have on hydration. Alcohol inhibits antidiuretic hormone (ADH), leading to increased urine production and hypohydration. 3 Alcohol use in college athletes is higher than the general student population and

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Byron L. Zamboanga, Nathan T. Kearns, Janine V. Olthuis, Heidemarie Blumenthal and Renee M. Cloutier

Drinking games participation is common among both adolescents and emerging adults, and has been linked to heavy alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences (for reviews, see Zamboanga et al., 2014 ; Zamboanga, Tomaso, et al., 2016 ). Research further suggests that particular motives for

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Graig M. Chow, Matthew D. Bird, Stinne Soendergaard and Yanyun Yang

Alcohol use represents an important mental health issue for student-athletes. Specifically, 77% of student-athletes consume alcohol and 42% engage in binge drinking (i.e., 4 or more drinks for women and 5 or more drinks for men; NCAA, 2018 ). As a result of alcohol use, student-athletes report

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Janine V. Olthuis, Byron L. Zamboanga, Matthew P. Martens and Lindsay S. Ham

Research has shown that college student-athletes are at increased risk for hazardous alcohol use. As such, this study examined social and cognitive influences on athletes’ alcohol consumption by exploring the association between injunctive norms (parental, teammate, and coach approval) and hazardous alcohol use among college athletes, and testing whether alcohol expectancy outcomes and valuations would mediate this association. College student-athletes (n = 301; mean age = 19.4, SD = 1.3) completed self-report questionnaires assessing their drinking behaviors and perceptions of alcohol use in their social environment. Structural equation modeling revealed, in all but one case, a direct association between each of the injunctive norms variables and hazardous alcohol use. In addition, negative expectancy valuations mediated the association between teammate approval and hazardous alcohol use. Injunctive norms emerged as an important factor in student-athletes’ alcohol use. Implications for alcohol intervention programming among student-athletes are discussed.

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Alison B. Pritchard Orr, Kathy Keiver, Chris P. Bertram and Sterling Clarren

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term used to describe the deficits resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). These deficits include a wide range of physical, cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial problems that can severely impact an individual’s ability to function in

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Holly F. Serrao, Matthew P. Martens, Jessica L. Martin and Tracey L. Rocha

Large-scale, national research studies have consistently indicated that college students participating in athletics consume more alcohol than nonathletes. Theorists have speculated that a number of risk factors could be associated with heavy drinking among this group, although research in the area has been sparse. The purpose of the current study was to assess the relationship between one possible risk factor, competitiveness, in a sample of recreational and elite college athletes to determine whether competitiveness was related to alcohol use among these athletes. Data were collected from a sample of 298 undergraduates from a large university in the northeastern United States. Results showed that competitiveness was associated with higher amounts of alcohol consumption. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed.

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Jessica L. Martin, Matthew P. Martens, Holly F. Serrao and Tracey L. Rocha

Heavy alcohol consumption is a well-known health compromising addictive behavior. A lesser known addictive behavior that may cause physical and psychological harm is exercise dependence. Research has shown that heavy drinking co-occurs with other addictive behaviors, but until recently little was known about the co-occurrence of alcohol use and exercise dependence. The purpose of the current study was to examine this relationship and assess whether the co-occurrence could be accounted for by personality characteristics. Participants were 283 undergraduate students at a large, Northeastern university. All students reported consuming alcohol in the past 30 days and the majority (95.9%) reported exercising at least occasionally. Results indicated that alcohol use and alcohol-related problems co-occurred with exercise dependence and that personality characteristics did not fully account for the relationship. These findings have implications for clinicians and prevention specialists working with college students and provide several avenues for future research in an innovative area.

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Jeremy J. Noble, Michael B. Madson, Richard S. Mohn and Jon T. Mandracchia

Heavy episodic drinking (HED) is related to an increase in negative consequences (Wechsler, Lee, Kuo, & Lee, 2000) including approximately 599,000 unintentional injuries and 1,825 deaths annually among college students (Hingson, Edwards, Heeren, & Rosenbloom, 2009). College athletes participate in greater alcohol consumption and experience more negative consequences than their nonathlete peers (Hildebrand, Johnson, & Bogle, 2001). Protective behavioral strategies (PBS) have played a significant role in reducing alcohol-related negative consequences within the college population (Martens et al., 2004). However, little is known about PBS use within specific at-risk populations such as athletes. This study aimed to identify the relationship between alcohol consumption, the use of protective behavioral strategies, and negative consequences among intercollegiate athletes. Results indicated that PBS partially mediated the relationship between alcohol consumption and negative consequences. Implications for intercollegiate athlete intervention and prevention programs are discussed as well as limitations of the study and directions for future research.

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Hans-Georg Palm, Oliver Waitz, Johannes Strobel, Jens Metrikat, Birgit Hay and Benedikt Friemert

There is clear evidence that vision contributes to stabilizing posture and that large quantities of alcohol affect balance. It has, however, not yet been investigated whether and how the consumption of low doses of ethanol affects postural control and the visual system. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the influence of low-dose alcohol intake on balance. After having performed stability tests in a sober condition, 26 healthy males were instructed to consume 0.32 g of ethanol/kg body weight. At predefined time points, blood samples were collected and stability index scores were calculated using computerized dynamic posturography. Thirty minutes after ethanol intake, blood alcohol levels reached a mean peak of 0.037%. Whereas the ability to maintain balance significantly deteriorated during eyes-open testing, it surprisingly did not decrease during eyes-closed testing. Apparently, the visual system is particularly affected by ethanol and plays a major role in maintaining postural stability.