Self-concept theory was used as a theoretical basis to investigate the utility of social norms alcohol prevention programs for college athletes. The predictive relationship among alcohol use and athletic identity, competitiveness, drinking game participation, and level of sport participation was investigated. Drinking game participation was found to be a significant predictor of total weekly alcohol use above and beyond the other predictors. In addition, organized recreational sport participation was a significant predictor of total binge-drinking episodes. It was demonstrated that individuals not currently participating in sports with an athletic identity in the same range as current athletes consumed alcohol at similar rates to current athletes, thus supporting athletic identity as an alternative way of classifying athlete status when studying alcohol consumption patterns. These results highlight the importance of drinking game participation in the alcohol use of college athletes and the validity of applying self-concept theory to alcohol prevention programs.
Jacob A. Jones
Melodie Fearnow-Kenney, David L. Wyrick, Jeffrey J. Milroy, Erin J. Reifsteck, Timothy Day and Samantha E. Kelly
College athletes are at risk for heavy alcohol use, which jeopardizes their general health, academic standing, and athletic performance. Effective prevention programming reduces these risks by targeting theory-based intermediate factors that predict alcohol use while tailoring content to student-athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the myPlaybook online prevention program on student-athletes’ social norms, negative alcohol expectancies, and intentions to use alcohol-related harm prevention strategies. NCAA Division II student-athletes were recruited from 60 institutions across the United States to complete myPlaybook and pretest/posttest surveys measuring demographics and targeted outcome variables. Participants were randomly assigned to the treatment group (pretest-program-posttest; final n = 647) or the delayed treatment “control” group (pretest-posttest-program; final n = 709). Results revealed significant program effects on social norms (p < .01) and intentions to use harm prevention strategies (p < .01), while the effect on negative alcohol expectancies was nonsignificant (p = .14). Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Sarah Kelly and Michael Ireland
Sport sponsorship is a major marketing communications tool, with one source reporting a total of $62.8 billion spent globally on sport sponsorship in 2017 ( Statista, 2018 ). Alcohol has a strong financial and cultural connection as a sponsoring product category in many sports. For instance
Byron L. Zamboanga, Nathan T. Kearns, Janine V. Olthuis, Heidemarie Blumenthal and Renee M. Cloutier
Drinking games participation is common among both adolescents and emerging adults, and has been linked to heavy alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences (for reviews, see Zamboanga et al., 2014 ; Zamboanga, Tomaso, et al., 2016 ). Research further suggests that particular motives for
Graig M. Chow, Matthew D. Bird, Stinne Soendergaard and Yanyun Yang
Alcohol use represents an important mental health issue for student-athletes. Specifically, 77% of student-athletes consume alcohol and 42% engage in binge drinking (i.e., 4 or more drinks for women and 5 or more drinks for men; NCAA, 2018 ). As a result of alcohol use, student-athletes report
Janine V. Olthuis, Byron L. Zamboanga, Matthew P. Martens and Lindsay S. Ham
Research has shown that college student-athletes are at increased risk for hazardous alcohol use. As such, this study examined social and cognitive influences on athletes’ alcohol consumption by exploring the association between injunctive norms (parental, teammate, and coach approval) and hazardous alcohol use among college athletes, and testing whether alcohol expectancy outcomes and valuations would mediate this association. College student-athletes (n = 301; mean age = 19.4, SD = 1.3) completed self-report questionnaires assessing their drinking behaviors and perceptions of alcohol use in their social environment. Structural equation modeling revealed, in all but one case, a direct association between each of the injunctive norms variables and hazardous alcohol use. In addition, negative expectancy valuations mediated the association between teammate approval and hazardous alcohol use. Injunctive norms emerged as an important factor in student-athletes’ alcohol use. Implications for alcohol intervention programming among student-athletes are discussed.
Sarah Jane Kelly, Michael Ireland, Frank Alpert and John Mangan
An online survey was conducted to examine the alleged association between alcohol sponsorship of sports and alcohol consumption and attitudes toward sponsoring brands by Australian university sportspeople (i.e., university students representing their university in competitive sports; N = 501; 51% female). A third (33%) of participants reported receipt of alcohol industry sponsorship. Multiple regression analysis revealed an association between disordered consumption (i.e., alcohol abuse) and sportspeople’s receiving direct-to-user sponsorship in the form of product samples, volume club rebates, vouchers, or prizes. Positive attitudes toward alcohol sponsorship in sport correlated with dangerously excessive (i.e., acute) drinking. The evidence suggests that policy makers, sporting organizations, and universities should target specific sponsorships and consumption outcomes rather than considering an overall ban on alcohol industry sponsorship in sport. Results suggest that student-targeted policy and governance alternatives directed at team culture, attitudes toward alcohol, and more subtle forms of sponsorships (i.e., discounted product and vouchers) may be appropriate.
Holly F. Serrao, Matthew P. Martens, Jessica L. Martin and Tracey L. Rocha
Large-scale, national research studies have consistently indicated that college students participating in athletics consume more alcohol than nonathletes. Theorists have speculated that a number of risk factors could be associated with heavy drinking among this group, although research in the area has been sparse. The purpose of the current study was to assess the relationship between one possible risk factor, competitiveness, in a sample of recreational and elite college athletes to determine whether competitiveness was related to alcohol use among these athletes. Data were collected from a sample of 298 undergraduates from a large university in the northeastern United States. Results showed that competitiveness was associated with higher amounts of alcohol consumption. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed.
Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Mats Hallgren, Andreas Lundin, James Mugisha and Ai Koyanagi
There have been some suggestions that light alcohol consumption has a protective effect on cardiovascular illness as well as on mortality, including all-cause mortality ( Mukamal et al., 2006 ; Thun et al., 1997 ). Alcohol may also facilitate relaxation through social interaction ( Blow, Serras
Matthew P. Martens, Kristen Dams-O’Connor and Christy Duffy-Paiement
Intercollegiate athletes have been identified as an at-risk group for heavy alcohol consumption. The purpose of the present study was to use a longitudinal design to assess for off-season versus in-season differences in alcohol consumption within a sample of intercollegiate athletes. Previous research has suggested that athletes drink less during their competitive seasons, but conclusions from this body of research have been tempered by methodological limitations in the previous studies. Results from 160 athletes competing at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level indicated that alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences decreased during the athletes' competitive seasons. These results are interpreted in terms of the theory of planned behavior and social norms theory. Implications for alcohol prevention programs among college athletes are also addressed.