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April Henning and Jörg Krieger

ever so slightly in the athletes’ favor. The growing significance of internal and external bodies demonstrates that athletes have contributed to this development. 6 The commercial interests of Olympic sport have long been at odds with the ideals of amateurism that underpinned the modern Olympics. The

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Robert J. Lake

. They have also helped uncritically promote an overly simplistic set of ideals around the sport’s apparent amateur “golden age.” Thus, what is presented through the celebration of Wimbledon’s traditions conforms and supports what are, in effect, socially constructed ideologies that serve the AELTC

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John J. Sewart

This paper defends the amateur ideal of athletics. It suggests that the hypocrisy which surrounds the amateur ideal is not due to a fault in the ideal itself, but is rather a symptom of commercial pressures upon sport. The defense of the amateur ideal does not necessarily involve a return to aristocratic privileges. The amateurist vision of “pure sport’ ’ provides a worthy ideal embodying the true meaning of sport as an end in itself. The paper shows the fate of amateurism in a market society to be one of betrayal of the utopian and emancipatory potential of sport.

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Daniel J. Peart, Michael Graham, Callum Blades and Ian H. Walshe

of a CMR on multiple choice RT (MCRT) in amateur boxers. Methods Participants In total, 8 male amateur boxers (mean [SD]: age 22 [3] y, stature 1.78 [0.07] m, mass 73.6 [14.2] kg) with at least 18 months of experience in the sport volunteered to take part in the study. All participants were in

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Jarred Pilgrim, Peter Kremer and Sam Robertson

and behavioral factors that are important for pre- and within-tournament preparation. Of what limited research has been done, Pilgrim, Robertson, and Kremer ( 2016 ) showed that amateur golfers use practice rounds before competition to chart each hole and plan the sequence of shots that will result in

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Diego Munguia-Izquierdo, Carmen Mayolas-Pi, Carlos Peñarrubia-Lozano, Federico Paris-Garcia, Javier Bueno-Antequera, Miguel Angel Oviedo-Caro and Alejandro Legaz-Arrese

performs physical activity at levels sufficient to achieve the World Health Organization recommendations. However, an increasing number of amateur athletes and cyclists participate in endurance exercise events. In fact, the number of individuals performing the endurance exercise events has tripled in the

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Timothy Baghurst, Anthony Parish and George Denny

The purpose of this study was to determine reasons women become competitive amateur bodybuilders. Participants were 63 adult female competitive bodybuilders who posted their biographies on a bodybuilding website. Each statement explaining why participants became bodybuilders was classified by a panel of current female bodybuilders into one of six categories. The most frequently stated category was Emulation (27%), followed by Self Esteem and Empowerment (24%), Previous Participation in Sport (22%), Health (17%), and Other (10%). These findings suggest that motivators for competitive female amateur bodybuilding stem from multiple sources, but in general are similar to those of their male counterparts. Future avenues for research are discussed.

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Lisa M. Kikulis, Trevor Slack, Bob Hinings and Alan Zimmermann

The theoretical rationale underlying this study was that a variety of structural design types exist in amateur sport organizations and that their structural characteristics may be effectively measured, scaled, and compared. Characteristics were defined along three dimensions of organizational structure: specialization, standardization, and centralization. The approach used to identify the structural design types was the creation of an organizational taxonomy. Based on the measurement of 15 structural scales for 59 provincial sport organizations, Ward’s hierarchical fusion algorithm clustering technique was used to partition these data into homogeneous subsets. Analysis revealed 8 structural design types. The results, while providing support for the idea that there is a trend toward a more professional and bureaucratic form for amateur sport organizations, also suggest that it is important to consider the potential variety in the structural design of these organizations.

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Gemma V. Espí-López, Pilar Serra-Añó, David Cobo-Pascual, Manuel Zarzoso, Luis Suso-Martí, Ferran Cuenca-Martínez and Marta Inglés

Football is a sport played by many people in the world, but the injury rate is high in both amateur and professional players, and the most common type of injury occurs in the lower limbs. Knee injuries are especially relevant, as they represent 15% of all lower limb injuries in male football

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Jennifer Carlson

I analyze women’s flat-track amateur roller derby by asking: how do derby skaters negotiate the requirements associated with emphasized femininity? By drawing on Hebdige’s (1979) analysis of punk, I develop the term female signifiant to argue that roller derby is an aggressive contact sport with a theatrical edge. It provides a rich, adventurous space to satirize athletic and feminine norms. Specifically, skaters’ sport participation is characterized by an interrogation of emphasized femininity without necessarily undermining the masculine/feminine gender binary.