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Gemma V. Espí-López, Pilar Serra-Añó, David Cobo-Pascual, Manuel Zarzoso, Luis Suso-Martí, Ferran Cuenca-Martínez and Marta Inglés

Football is a sport played by many people in the world, but the injury rate is high in both amateur and professional players, and the most common type of injury occurs in the lower limbs. Knee injuries are especially relevant, as they represent 15% of all lower limb injuries in male football

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David W. Meister, Amy L. Ladd, Erin E. Butler, Betty Zhao, Andrew P. Rogers, Conrad J. Ray and Jessica Rose

The purpose of this study was to determine biomechanical factors that may influence golf swing power generation. Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics were examined in 10 professional and 5 amateur male golfers. Upper-torso rotation, pelvic rotation, X-factor (relative hip-shoulder rotation), O-factor (pelvic obliquity), S-factor (shoulder obliquity), and normalized free moment were assessed in relation to clubhead speed at impact (CSI). Among professional golfers, results revealed that peak free moment per kilogram, peak X-factor, and peak S-factor were highly consistent, with coefficients of variation of 6.8%, 7.4%, and 8.4%, respectively. Downswing was initiated by reversal of pelvic rotation, followed by reversal of upper-torso rotation. Peak X-factor preceded peak free moment in all swings for all golfers, and occurred during initial downswing. Peak free moment per kilogram, X-factor at impact, peak X-factor, and peak upper-torso rotation were highly correlated to CSI (median correlation coefficients of 0.943, 0.943, 0.900, and 0.900, respectively). Benchmark curves revealed kinematic and kinetic temporal and spatial differences of amateurs compared with professional golfers. For amateurs, the number of factors that fell outside 1–2 standard deviations of professional means increased with handicap. This study identified biomechanical factors highly correlated to golf swing power generation and may provide a basis for strategic training and injury prevention.

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Jane Lee Sinden

The present study examines Foucault’s (1977) concept of normalization as it applies to the emotions of female elite amateur rowers. Specifically, this study sought to understand how beliefs about emotion, developed through the normalization process, may coerce athletes to continue to train even when physically unhealthy. Interviews were conducted with 11 retired elite amateur female rowers who suffered health problems while training but continued training despite these health problems. Interpretation of the data suggests that the rowers suppressed emotions to avoid appearing mentally weak, negative, or irrational, despite needing to express their concerns about training volumes and health issues to minimize deleterious effects that continued training eventually had on their health.

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J. Brett Massie and Sarah Vitale

Edited by Joseph J. Piccininni

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Nicolas Olivier, Renaud Legrand, Jacques Rogez, FX Gamelin, Serge Berthoin and Thierry Weissland

Objective:

To analyze the consequences on heart rate variability (HRV) of a hospitalization period due to surgery of the knee in sportsmen.

Patients:

Ten soccer players who had undergone knee surgery took part in this study.

Design:

HRV was measured before and after hospitalization within a 7-day interval.

Results:

After the hospitalization phase, heart rate at rest increased significantly (3 beats/minute). A significant decrease of 7% in the cardiac inter beat interval (R-R interval), P < 0.05 and a 66% decrease in total power spectral density: −66%, P < 0.05 were observed. The disturbance of the autonomic nervous system could be due to a variation in cardiac vagal activity resulting in a 64% decrease in the high frequencies (P < 0.05). This variation was not associated with a modification in normalized markers (LFn.u., HFn.u.) and LF/HF ratio (P > 0.05).

Conclusion:

In sportsmen, a hospitalization period led to an increase in resting heart rate and was associated with a disturbance of the autonomic nervous system.

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Jeroen de Bruijn, Henk van der Worp, Mark Korte, Astrid de Vries, Rick Nijland and Michel Brink

Soccer and injury are inseparably linked together. A professional soccer player sustains on average 2 injuries every season, thereby missing 37 days each season (ie, about 12%). 1 We can also find high injury rates in amateur soccer. In Dutch amateur soccer, 60.1 percent of 274 players got injured

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Michael Girdwood, Liam West, David Connell and Peter Brukner

previously unreported case of a contact-related strain of QF, OE, and inferior gemellus in an amateur ARF athlete. Case Report A male amateur Australian rules footballer (age: 21 y; height: 178 cm; weight: 74 kg) was injured during match play after being tackled and slung into the ground (informed consent

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Sophie Speariett and Ross Armstrong

injuries highly prevalent among both amateur and professional golfers. 54 , 56 – 59 Therefore, there is a need to balance potential performance benefits against injury risk. GSFMS Element Score and Golf Performance Variables The finding of a negative correlation between torso rotation and handicap and a

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Adam Jones, Richard Page, Chris Brogden, Ben Langley and Matt Greig

quantified in terms of distance covered. Additional outcome measures in rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and a visual analog scale (VAS) measure of lower-limb muscle soreness were also recorded to reflect the perceptual influence of playing surface. Participants Fifteen amateur male soccer players (22

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Vincenzo Ricci and Levent Özçakar

Muscle injuries are very common in sports medicine, but involvement of the paraspinal muscles is relatively rare. The diagnosis is usually clinical, but diagnostic imaging modalities (ie, ultrasound and magnetic resonance) identify, in detail, the anatomical site and extension of the lesion helping the physician plan a specific rehabilitation program. Likewise, the authors present an unusual case of a amateur volleyball player who suffered injury of the paraspinal muscles after a session of manual therapy with deep massage. The authors also highlight the potential role of ultrasound imaging in detecting muscle injuries not only in the limbs but also at the level of paraspinal region for prompt management and return to play.