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Robert J. Lake

. They have also helped uncritically promote an overly simplistic set of ideals around the sport’s apparent amateur “golden age.” Thus, what is presented through the celebration of Wimbledon’s traditions conforms and supports what are, in effect, socially constructed ideologies that serve the AELTC

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Jarred Pilgrim, Peter Kremer and Sam Robertson

and behavioral factors that are important for pre- and within-tournament preparation. Of what limited research has been done, Pilgrim, Robertson, and Kremer ( 2016 ) showed that amateur golfers use practice rounds before competition to chart each hole and plan the sequence of shots that will result in

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Diego Munguia-Izquierdo, Carmen Mayolas-Pi, Carlos Peñarrubia-Lozano, Federico Paris-Garcia, Javier Bueno-Antequera, Miguel Angel Oviedo-Caro and Alejandro Legaz-Arrese

performs physical activity at levels sufficient to achieve the World Health Organization recommendations. However, an increasing number of amateur athletes and cyclists participate in endurance exercise events. In fact, the number of individuals performing the endurance exercise events has tripled in the

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Timothy Baghurst, Anthony Parish and George Denny

The purpose of this study was to determine reasons women become competitive amateur bodybuilders. Participants were 63 adult female competitive bodybuilders who posted their biographies on a bodybuilding website. Each statement explaining why participants became bodybuilders was classified by a panel of current female bodybuilders into one of six categories. The most frequently stated category was Emulation (27%), followed by Self Esteem and Empowerment (24%), Previous Participation in Sport (22%), Health (17%), and Other (10%). These findings suggest that motivators for competitive female amateur bodybuilding stem from multiple sources, but in general are similar to those of their male counterparts. Future avenues for research are discussed.

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Lisa M. Kikulis, Trevor Slack, Bob Hinings and Alan Zimmermann

The theoretical rationale underlying this study was that a variety of structural design types exist in amateur sport organizations and that their structural characteristics may be effectively measured, scaled, and compared. Characteristics were defined along three dimensions of organizational structure: specialization, standardization, and centralization. The approach used to identify the structural design types was the creation of an organizational taxonomy. Based on the measurement of 15 structural scales for 59 provincial sport organizations, Ward’s hierarchical fusion algorithm clustering technique was used to partition these data into homogeneous subsets. Analysis revealed 8 structural design types. The results, while providing support for the idea that there is a trend toward a more professional and bureaucratic form for amateur sport organizations, also suggest that it is important to consider the potential variety in the structural design of these organizations.

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Arran Caza

The Amateur Boxing Association (ABA) is a Canadian provincial sport organization. Recently, the ABA has attempted many innovations in response to strong pressure for change. The success of these attempts has been mixed. This study uses Pettigrew, Ferlie and McKee's (1992) metaphor of context receptivity to explain this outcome variability. Context receptivity is a process-oriented perspective on organizational change behavior. This research is a qualitative, ethnographic case study focussing on two particular ABA innovations. One innovation failed; the other succeeded. These results are consistent with the expectations of context receptivity, which is a useful framework for understanding change outcomes in sport organizations.

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Sue Inglis

Limited empirical data on the roles associated with boards of directors in nonprofit organizations are available, yet understanding the work of boards is vital to ensure the roles desired by organizational members and the roles required by the organization are being fulfilled. The roles or functions of boards in nonprofit organizations, as found in the management literature, were used to explore the roles associated with a sample of nonprofit amateur sport organizations. Data were generated from a survey of executive directors, volunteer presidents, and volunteer board members of sport organizations housed at Ontario's Provincial Sport Centre in Toronto. The survey data yielded a 4-factor subscale providing support for a theoretical perspective in assessing roles of the board in mission, planning, executive director, and community relations areas. Similarities and differences of respondents by gender and position on ratings of importance and performance for the board roles were explored with implications for board development discussed.

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Mikel Zabala, Jaime Morente-Sánchez, Manuel Mateo-March and Daniel Sanabria

This study addresses performance-enhancement drug (PED) consumption in amateur sport by investigating the relationship between psychosocial factors and PED use in amateur cyclists. Participants were asked whether they had ever taken PED. They were also asked whether they had any experience in competitive cycling, and the degree to which they participated in the event with a competitive aim. In addition, they completed the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and a bespoke self-efficacy questionnaire, and they rated the percentage of cyclists they believed took PED. Between-groups comparisons and two multiple regression analyses were performed. Overall, the results of our study point to adult amateur cyclists in general, and amateur cyclists with experience in competition in particular, as groups at risk for PED use. This study highlights the value of measuring psychosocial variables as a tool to assess PED use, a current issue at both sport performance and health levels.

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Julie Stevens

The purpose of this article is to understand the nature of large-scale organizational change within amateur sport through the analysis of a merger between two hockey organizations. This study expands upon the research on Canadian national sport organizations established by Kikulis, Slack, and Hinings (1992) by identifying a new archetype—the Amateur Sport Enterprise. In particular, the study presents a case analysis of the 1994 merger between the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association and Hockey Canada to form the Canadian Hockey Association . The results of the qualitative case study revealed that, contrary to previous notions of archetype coherence, aspects of competing archetypes might coexist within an organizational form or, more specifically, within particular elements of an organizational form. The characteristics of the Amateur Sport Enterprise archetype are discussed and implications for future sport management research are addressed.

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Jane Lee Sinden

The present study examines Foucault’s (1977) concept of normalization as it applies to the emotions of female elite amateur rowers. Specifically, this study sought to understand how beliefs about emotion, developed through the normalization process, may coerce athletes to continue to train even when physically unhealthy. Interviews were conducted with 11 retired elite amateur female rowers who suffered health problems while training but continued training despite these health problems. Interpretation of the data suggests that the rowers suppressed emotions to avoid appearing mentally weak, negative, or irrational, despite needing to express their concerns about training volumes and health issues to minimize deleterious effects that continued training eventually had on their health.