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Robert J. Lake

. They have also helped uncritically promote an overly simplistic set of ideals around the sport’s apparent amateur “golden age.” Thus, what is presented through the celebration of Wimbledon’s traditions conforms and supports what are, in effect, socially constructed ideologies that serve the AELTC

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John J. Sewart

This paper defends the amateur ideal of athletics. It suggests that the hypocrisy which surrounds the amateur ideal is not due to a fault in the ideal itself, but is rather a symptom of commercial pressures upon sport. The defense of the amateur ideal does not necessarily involve a return to aristocratic privileges. The amateurist vision of “pure sport’ ’ provides a worthy ideal embodying the true meaning of sport as an end in itself. The paper shows the fate of amateurism in a market society to be one of betrayal of the utopian and emancipatory potential of sport.

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Timothy Baghurst, Anthony Parish and George Denny

The purpose of this study was to determine reasons women become competitive amateur bodybuilders. Participants were 63 adult female competitive bodybuilders who posted their biographies on a bodybuilding website. Each statement explaining why participants became bodybuilders was classified by a panel of current female bodybuilders into one of six categories. The most frequently stated category was Emulation (27%), followed by Self Esteem and Empowerment (24%), Previous Participation in Sport (22%), Health (17%), and Other (10%). These findings suggest that motivators for competitive female amateur bodybuilding stem from multiple sources, but in general are similar to those of their male counterparts. Future avenues for research are discussed.

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Lisa M. Kikulis, Trevor Slack, Bob Hinings and Alan Zimmermann

The theoretical rationale underlying this study was that a variety of structural design types exist in amateur sport organizations and that their structural characteristics may be effectively measured, scaled, and compared. Characteristics were defined along three dimensions of organizational structure: specialization, standardization, and centralization. The approach used to identify the structural design types was the creation of an organizational taxonomy. Based on the measurement of 15 structural scales for 59 provincial sport organizations, Ward’s hierarchical fusion algorithm clustering technique was used to partition these data into homogeneous subsets. Analysis revealed 8 structural design types. The results, while providing support for the idea that there is a trend toward a more professional and bureaucratic form for amateur sport organizations, also suggest that it is important to consider the potential variety in the structural design of these organizations.

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Jennifer Carlson

I analyze women’s flat-track amateur roller derby by asking: how do derby skaters negotiate the requirements associated with emphasized femininity? By drawing on Hebdige’s (1979) analysis of punk, I develop the term female signifiant to argue that roller derby is an aggressive contact sport with a theatrical edge. It provides a rich, adventurous space to satirize athletic and feminine norms. Specifically, skaters’ sport participation is characterized by an interrogation of emphasized femininity without necessarily undermining the masculine/feminine gender binary.

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Arran Caza

The Amateur Boxing Association (ABA) is a Canadian provincial sport organization. Recently, the ABA has attempted many innovations in response to strong pressure for change. The success of these attempts has been mixed. This study uses Pettigrew, Ferlie and McKee's (1992) metaphor of context receptivity to explain this outcome variability. Context receptivity is a process-oriented perspective on organizational change behavior. This research is a qualitative, ethnographic case study focussing on two particular ABA innovations. One innovation failed; the other succeeded. These results are consistent with the expectations of context receptivity, which is a useful framework for understanding change outcomes in sport organizations.

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Sue Inglis

Limited empirical data on the roles associated with boards of directors in nonprofit organizations are available, yet understanding the work of boards is vital to ensure the roles desired by organizational members and the roles required by the organization are being fulfilled. The roles or functions of boards in nonprofit organizations, as found in the management literature, were used to explore the roles associated with a sample of nonprofit amateur sport organizations. Data were generated from a survey of executive directors, volunteer presidents, and volunteer board members of sport organizations housed at Ontario's Provincial Sport Centre in Toronto. The survey data yielded a 4-factor subscale providing support for a theoretical perspective in assessing roles of the board in mission, planning, executive director, and community relations areas. Similarities and differences of respondents by gender and position on ratings of importance and performance for the board roles were explored with implications for board development discussed.

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Julie Stevens

The purpose of this article is to understand the nature of large-scale organizational change within amateur sport through the analysis of a merger between two hockey organizations. This study expands upon the research on Canadian national sport organizations established by Kikulis, Slack, and Hinings (1992) by identifying a new archetype—the Amateur Sport Enterprise. In particular, the study presents a case analysis of the 1994 merger between the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association and Hockey Canada to form the Canadian Hockey Association . The results of the qualitative case study revealed that, contrary to previous notions of archetype coherence, aspects of competing archetypes might coexist within an organizational form or, more specifically, within particular elements of an organizational form. The characteristics of the Amateur Sport Enterprise archetype are discussed and implications for future sport management research are addressed.

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Michael Price and Andrew Parker

This paper presents findings from an ethnographic study of a UK-based amateur rugby union club for gay and bisexual men. Positioning the club at the centre of the research, heterosexist definitions of sport are analysed with regard to their effect on the lives of players and the continued existence of the club itself. The standpoint of team members in relation to dominant hegemonic forces in sport is explored through an examination of the sexual politics of the club and the possibility for iterative challenges to gender norms within this particular sporting context. The central findings indicate that the club inadvertently promoted a liberal image towards dominant heterosexual sporting norms and, in this sense, co-opted into mainstream rugby culture.

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Anastasios Kaburakis, David A. Pierce, Beth A. Cianfrone and Amanda L. Paule

The NCAA maintains a balance between amateurism and the increasing need for generating revenue. In this balancing act, there are various policy considerations and legal constraints. These legal and policy entanglements bore such class action suits as Keller v. Electronic Arts, National Collegiate Athletic Association, and Collegiate Licensing Company (2009) and O’Bannon v. National Collegiate Athletic Association and Collegiate Licensing Company (2009), which question current revenue generating practices of the NCAA. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of NCAA Division I men’s football and basketball student-athletes toward amateurism and the particular use of student-athletes’ likenesses in college sports video games. Findings point to a lack of clarity and understanding of the agreements and consent forms student-athletes sign annually. Respondents demonstrated confusion in regard to financial aid opportunities, parameters of their scholarships, and whether they endorse commercial products. A majority of respondents expressed the desire to receive additional compensation. Recommendations include clarification and focused rules’ education from compliance and financial aid officers, as well as introducing new amateurism policy, concurrently avoiding costly litigation.