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Daniel J. Peart, Michael Graham, Callum Blades and Ian H. Walshe

of a CMR on multiple choice RT (MCRT) in amateur boxers. Methods Participants In total, 8 male amateur boxers (mean [SD]: age 22 [3] y, stature 1.78 [0.07] m, mass 73.6 [14.2] kg) with at least 18 months of experience in the sport volunteered to take part in the study. All participants were in

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Diego Munguia-Izquierdo, Carmen Mayolas-Pi, Carlos Peñarrubia-Lozano, Federico Paris-Garcia, Javier Bueno-Antequera, Miguel Angel Oviedo-Caro and Alejandro Legaz-Arrese

performs physical activity at levels sufficient to achieve the World Health Organization recommendations. However, an increasing number of amateur athletes and cyclists participate in endurance exercise events. In fact, the number of individuals performing the endurance exercise events has tripled in the

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Philip Davis, Renate M. Leithäuser and Ralph Beneke

The energy expenditure of amateur boxing is unknown.

Purpose:

Total metabolic cost (Wtot) as an aggregate of aerobic (Waer), anaerobic lactic (W[lactate]), and anaerobic alactic (WPCr) energy of a 3 × 2-min semicontact amateur boxing bout was analyzed.

Methods:

Ten boxers (mean ± SD [lower/upper 95% confidence intervals]) age 23.7 ± 4.1 (20.8/26.6) y, height 180.2 ± 7.0 (175.2/185.2) cm, body mass 70.6 ± 5.7 (66.5/74.7) kg performed a semicontact bout against handheld pads created from previously analyzed video footage of competitive bouts. Net metabolic energy was calculated using respiratory gases and blood [lactate].

Results:

Waer, 526.0 ± 57.1 (485.1/566.9) kJ, was higher (P < .001) than WPCr, 58.1 ± 13.6 (48.4/67.8) kJ. W[lactate], 26.2 ± 7.1 (21.1/31.3) kJ, was lower (P < .001) than Waer and WPCr. An ~70-kJ fraction of the aerobic energy expenditure reflects rephosphorylation of high-energy phosphates during the breaks between rounds, which elevated Wtot to ~680 kJ with relative contributions of 77% Waer, 19% WPCr, and 4% W[lactate].

Conclusions:

The results indicate that the metabolic profile of amateur boxing is predominantly aerobic. They also highlight the importance of a highly developed aerobic capacity as a prerequisite of a high activity rate during rounds and recovery of the high-energy phosphate system during breaks as interrelated requirements of successful boxing.

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David W. Meister, Amy L. Ladd, Erin E. Butler, Betty Zhao, Andrew P. Rogers, Conrad J. Ray and Jessica Rose

The purpose of this study was to determine biomechanical factors that may influence golf swing power generation. Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics were examined in 10 professional and 5 amateur male golfers. Upper-torso rotation, pelvic rotation, X-factor (relative hip-shoulder rotation), O-factor (pelvic obliquity), S-factor (shoulder obliquity), and normalized free moment were assessed in relation to clubhead speed at impact (CSI). Among professional golfers, results revealed that peak free moment per kilogram, peak X-factor, and peak S-factor were highly consistent, with coefficients of variation of 6.8%, 7.4%, and 8.4%, respectively. Downswing was initiated by reversal of pelvic rotation, followed by reversal of upper-torso rotation. Peak X-factor preceded peak free moment in all swings for all golfers, and occurred during initial downswing. Peak free moment per kilogram, X-factor at impact, peak X-factor, and peak upper-torso rotation were highly correlated to CSI (median correlation coefficients of 0.943, 0.943, 0.900, and 0.900, respectively). Benchmark curves revealed kinematic and kinetic temporal and spatial differences of amateurs compared with professional golfers. For amateurs, the number of factors that fell outside 1–2 standard deviations of professional means increased with handicap. This study identified biomechanical factors highly correlated to golf swing power generation and may provide a basis for strategic training and injury prevention.

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Philip Davis, Peter R. Benson, James D. Pitty, Andrew J. Connorton and Robert Waldock

An activity profile of competitive 3 × 3-min elite-level amateur boxing was created from video footage of 29 Olympic final and semifinal bouts in 39 male boxers (mean ± SD) age 25.1 ± 3.6 y, height 178.3 ± 10.4 cm, and body mass 69.7 ± 16.5 kg. Boxing at this level requires the ability to maintain an activity rate of ~1.4 actions/s, consisting of ~20 punches, ~2.5 defensive movements, and ~47 vertical hip movements, all per minute, over 3 subsequent rounds lasting ~200 s each. Winners had higher total punches landed (P = .041) and a lower ratio of punches thrown to landed (P = .027) than losers in round 3. The hook rearhand landed was also higher for winners than losers in round 2 (P = .038) and round 3 (P = .016), and defensive movements were used less by winners (P = .036). However, the results suggest that technical discrimination between winners and losers is difficult; bout outcome may be more dependent on which punch is “lucky” enough to be scored by the judges or who appears to be dominant on the day. This study gives both boxers and coaches a good idea of where subelite boxers need to aim if they want to become among the best amateur boxers in the world.

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Philip Davis, Anna Wittekind and Ralph Beneke

An activity profile of competitive 3 × 2-min novice-level amateur boxing was created based on video footage and postbout blood [La] in 32 male boxers (mean ± SD) age 19.3 ± 1.4 y, body mass 62.6 ± 4.1 kg. Winners landed 18 ± 11 more punches than losers by applying more lead-hand punches in round 1 (34.2 ± 10.9 vs 26.5 ± 9.4), total punches to the head (121.3 ± 10.2 vs 96.0 ± 9.8), and block and counterpunch combinations (2.8 ± 1.1 vs. 0.1 ± 0.2) over all 3 rounds and punching combinations (44.3 ± 6.4 vs 28.8 ± 6.7) in rounds 1 and 3 (all P < .05). In 16 boxers, peak postbout blood [La] was 11.8 ± 1.6 mmol/L irrespective of winning or losing. The results suggest that landing punches requires the ability to maintain a high frequency of attacking movements, in particular the lead-hand straight punch to the head together with punching combinations. Defensive movements must initiate a counterattack. Postbout blood [La] suggests that boxers must be able to tolerate a lactate production rate of 1.8 mmol · L−1 · min−1 and maintain skillful techniques at a sufficient activity rate.

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Tim Donovan, Tim Ballam, James P. Morton and Graeme L. Close

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that β-alanine supplementation improves punch power and frequency in amateur boxers during a simulated contest. Sixteen amateur boxers (each approximately 6 yr experience) were assigned to β-alanine (n = 8; 1.5 g 4 times/d for 4 wk) or placebo supplementation (n = 8) after initially being assessed for baseline punch performance. Before and after the supplementation period, all boxers completed a simulated contest consisting of 3 × 3-min rounds (interspersed with 60-s rests) on a punching bag (with a force transducer attached). Each round involved performing 2 min 50 s standardized punching (standardized jab, cross combination) based on notation analysis, whereas the last 10 s involved maximal-output punching (standardized jab, cross combination), during which time punch force and frequency were recorded. Postcontest blood lactate was significantly increased in the β-alanine group (presupplementation 9.5 ± 0.9 mmol/L, postsupplementation 12.6 ± 0.5 mmol/L, p < .05), whereas the placebo group showed no change (presupplementation 8 ± 2.8 mmol/L, postsupplementation 7.0 ± 2.7 mmol/L; p > .05). During the 10-s maximal-output punching, changes in mean punch force (β-alanine 20 ± 1.01 kg, placebo 1 ± 1 kg) and punch frequency (β-alanine 5 ± 4, placebo –2 ± 3) were greater (p < .05) in the β-alanine-supplemented group. The authors conclude that β-alanine supplementation improves punching performance in amateur boxers and suggest that this supplementation protocol may also prove ergogenic for other combat-related sports.

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Jane Lee Sinden

The present study examines Foucault’s (1977) concept of normalization as it applies to the emotions of female elite amateur rowers. Specifically, this study sought to understand how beliefs about emotion, developed through the normalization process, may coerce athletes to continue to train even when physically unhealthy. Interviews were conducted with 11 retired elite amateur female rowers who suffered health problems while training but continued training despite these health problems. Interpretation of the data suggests that the rowers suppressed emotions to avoid appearing mentally weak, negative, or irrational, despite needing to express their concerns about training volumes and health issues to minimize deleterious effects that continued training eventually had on their health.

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Robert G. Lockie, Matthew D. Jeffriess, Tye S. McGann, Samuel J. Callaghan and Adrian B. Schultz

Context:

Research indicates that planned and reactive agility are different athletic skills. These skills have not been adequately assessed in male basketball players.

Purpose:

To define whether 10-m-sprint performance and planned and reactive agility measured by the Y-shaped agility test can discriminate between semiprofessional and amateur basketball players.

Methods:

Ten semiprofessional and 10 amateur basketball players completed 10-m sprints and planned- and reactive-agility tests. The Y-shaped agility test involved subjects sprinting 5 m through a trigger timing gate, followed by a 45° cut and 5-m sprint to the left or right through a target gate. In the planned condition, subjects knew the cut direction. For reactive trials, subjects visually scanned to find the illuminated gate. A 1-way analysis of variance (P < .05) determined between-groups differences. Data were pooled (N = 20) for a correlation analysis (P < .05).

Results:

The reactive tests differentiated between the groups; semiprofessional players were 6% faster for the reactive left (P = .036) and right (P = .029) cuts. The strongest correlations were between the 10-m sprints and planned-agility tests (r = .590–.860). The reactive left cut did not correlate with the planned tests. The reactive right cut moderately correlated with the 10-m sprint and planned right cut (r = .487–.485).

Conclusions:

The results reemphasized that planned and reactive agility are separate physical qualities. Reactive agility discriminated between the semiprofessional and amateur basketball players; planned agility did not. To distinguish between male basketball players of different ability levels, agility tests should include a perceptual and decision-making component.

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Philip Davis, Peter R. Benson, Robert Waldock and Andrew J. Connorton

Female boxing debuted at the 2012 London Olympic Games. To better understand the performance aspects of the sport, video footage of eighteen 4 × 2-min bouts were analyzed. The boxers involved in the competition were of an elite level (mean ± SD), age 26.4 ± 4.6 y, height 169.3 ± 6.2 cm, and weight 60.3 ± 10.0 kg. Analysis revealed an activity rate of ~1.6 actions/s, including ~16 punches, ~3.3 defensive movements, and ~63 vertical hip movements, all per minute, over the 4 × ~132-s rounds (R). A 2 × 4 (outcome × round) ANOVA with repeated measures over the rounds was used to analyze the data. Winners maintained a higher activity rate in round 1 (R1) and R2; a higher movement rate in R2, R3, and R4; and an increased punch accuracy including the ratio of total punches to punches landed in R3 and air punches as a percentage of punches missed in R1 and R3. Specific techniques that discriminate between successful and unsuccessful female amateur boxers include the straight rear-hand and body punches, higher for winners in R1, as well as uppercut punches and defensive foot movements, higher for winners in R4. Findings highlight the current demands of elite amateur female boxing. These data will be useful for those designing training programs and may also be useful for guiding sport-specific fitness testing.