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Brian S. Baum, Hiroaki Hobara, Yoon Hyuk Kim and Jae Kun Shim

Individuals with lower extremity amputation must adapt the mechanical interactions between the feet and ground to account for musculoskeletal function loss. However, it is currently unknown how individuals with amputation modulate three-dimensional ground reaction forces (GRFs) when running. This study aimed to understand how running with running-specific prostheses influences three-dimensional support forces from the ground. Eight individuals with unilateral transtibial amputations and 8 control subjects ran overground at 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 m/s. Ten force plates measured GRFs at 1000 Hz. Peak and average GRFs and impulses in each plane were compared between limbs and groups. Prosthetic limbs generated reduced vertical impulses, braking forces and impulses, and mediolateral forces while generating similar propulsive impulses compared with intact and control limbs. Intact limbs generated greater peak and average vertical forces and average braking forces than control subjects’ limbs. These data indicate that the nonamputated limb experiences elevated mechanical loading compared with prosthetic and control limbs. This may place individuals with amputation at greater risk of acute injury or joint degeneration in their intact limb. Individuals with amputation adapted to running-specific prosthesis force production limitations by generating longer periods of positive impulse thus producing propulsive impulses equivalent to intact and control limbs.

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Hiroaki Hobara, Sakiko Saito, Satoru Hashizume, Hiroyuki Sakata and Yoshiyuki Kobayashi

. Int J Sports Med . 2014 ; 35 ( 9 ): 755 – 761 . PubMed ID: 24577864 doi:10.1055/s-0033-1363252 24577864 10.1055/s-0033-1363252 10. Baum BS , Schultz MP , Tian A , et al . Amputee locomotion: determining the inertial properties of running-specific prostheses . Arch Phys Med Rehab . 2013

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Atsushi Makimoto, Yoko Sano, Satoru Hashizume, Akihiko Murai, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Hiroshi Takemura and Hiroaki Hobara

, Kim YH , Shim JK . Amputee locomotion: ground reaction forces during submaximal running with running-specific prostheses . J Appl Biomech . 2016 ; 32 ( 3 ): 287 – 294 . PubMed doi:10.1123/jab.2014-0290 26957365 10.1123/jab.2014-0290 17. Nolan L . A training

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True Reliability of Lower Limb Stiffness Measures During Overground Hopping David Diggin * Ross Anderson * Andrew J. Harrison * 6 2016 32 3 278 286 10.1123/jab.2015-0210 Amputee Locomotion: Ground Reaction Forces During Submaximal Running With Running-Specific Prostheses Brian S. Baum * Hiroaki

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Fabian Mager, Jim Richards, Malika Hennies, Eugen Dötzel, Ambreen Chohan, Alex Mbuli and Felix Capanni

. 1996 ; 11 ( 5 ): 253 – 259 . PubMed ID: 11415629 doi:10.1016/0268-0033(95)00068-2 10.1016/0268-0033(95)00068-2 23. Hobara H , Baum BS , Kwon HJ , et al . Amputee locomotion: spring-like leg behavior and stiffness regulation using running-specific prostheses . J Biomech . 2013 ; 46 ( 14

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Jessica G. Hunter, Alexander M.B. Smith, Lena M. Sciarratta, Stephen Suydam, Jae Kun Shim and Ross H. Miller

Sports Med . 2006 ; 34 ( 11 ): 1844 – 1851 . PubMed ID: 16735584 doi:10.1177/0363546506288753 16735584 10.1177/0363546506288753 29. Hobara H , Baum BS , Kwon HJ , et al . Amputee locomotion: lower extremity loading using running-specific prostheses . Gait Posture . 2014 ; 39 ( 1 ): 386 – 390