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Larry G. Matson and Zung Vu Tran

Many researchers have investigated the effects of induced metabolic alkalosis, by ingestion of sodium bicarbonate, on anaerobic exercise performance. But the results have been inconsistent and often contradictory. The purpose of this review was to synthesize the varied findings using a meta-analytic approach. Twenty-nine investigations met our inclusion criteria. Results show that NaHCO3, ingestion clearly results in a more alkaline extracellular environment. The dosage, however, was only moderately related to the increase in pH and HCO3-. Overall, performance was enhanced but the range of effect sizes was large, -0.12 to 2.87. In studies that measured time to exhaustion, there was a mean 27±20% increase in duration. The treatment effect, however, was only weakly related to the degree of induced alkalosis. But in comparing the 19 studies that showed a positive treatment effect with the 16 that showed no effect, the former were associated with a greater increase in pH following ingestion of a somewhat larger dosage, and a greater decrease in pH with exercise.

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Kenneth R. Turley, Paola A. Eusse, Myles M. Thomas, Jeremy R. Townsend, and Aaron B. Morton

This study investigated effects of low (1 mg·kg−1), moderate (3 mg·kg−1) and high (5 mg·kg−1) doses of caffeine on anaerobic performance in boys. Twenty-six 8- to 10-year-old boys participated in a double-blind, crossover, counter-balanced study. Boys received in random order a placebo (PL) or anhydrous caffeine: 1 (CAF-1), 3 (CAF-3), or 5 (CAF-5) mg caffeine·kg−1 body mass in cherry flavored Sprite. Sixty minutes following consumption boys performed a static handgrip test and then a 30-s Wingate test. Maximal grip strength (21.5 ± 4.9 & 21.6 ± 4.7 vs. 20.4 ± 4.0 kg) was significantly higher in CAF-5 & CAF-3 vs PL, respectively. Absolute and relative peak power (287 ± 72 vs 281 ± 69 W & 8.0 ± 0.9 vs 7.8 ± 1.0 W·kg−1) were significantly higher in CAF-3 vs PL, respectively. Mean power (153 ± 48 vs 146 ± 43 W) was significantly higher in CAF-5 vs PL, respectively. Peak Wingate HR was significantly higher (189 ± 8 vs 185 ± 9 beats·min−1) in CAF-5 vs PL, respectively. These findings suggest that in boys CAF-1 did not affect performance. During the Wingate test CAF-3 resulted in higher peak power while CAF-5 increased mean power. The significant increase in peak HR following the Wingate test is likely related to greater mean power generated during CAF-5.

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Sebastian Kaufmann, Olaf Hoos, Timo Kuehl, Thomas Tietz, Dominik Reim, Kai Fehske, Richard Latzel, and Ralph Beneke

require a fast recovery from repeated intermittent exercise. In YYIR1, the starting running velocity and the initial increases in running speeds are substantially lower than in YYIR2. The YYIR2 is considered to tax the anaerobic energy system more strongly than the YYIR1. 9 , 12 , 13 So far, both tests

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Arnaud Hays, Caroline Nicol, Denis Bertin, Romain Hardouin, and Jeanick Brisswalter

the variance in performance is reported to be explained by aerobic parameters, much of it remains unexplained. 1 – 4 More recently, Inoue et al 5 examined the correlation between the XCO race time and the anaerobic power assessed by a Wingate test and concluded that anaerobic power is also an

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Reginald L. Washington

The ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) occurs when there is an isolated increase in the slope for ventilator equivalent for oxygen consumption (VE/VO2) with no change in the slope for ventilatoiy equivalent for carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) when both are plotted against time. The concept of anaerobic threshold remains controversial. However, it is a clinically useful tool in evaluating the exercise capacity of children. This paper will review the history, biochemistry, and methodology involved in determining the anaerobic threshold, as well as the ventilatory anaerobic threshold in children.

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Sebastian Kaufmann, Olaf Hoos, Aaron Beck, Fabian Fueller, Richard Latzel, and Ralph Beneke

Anaerobic exercise testing is a research topic of high relevance, as documented by >10,000 results for “anaerobic test” on PubMed. Nevertheless, there is no single best indicator for anaerobic performance, such as maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) for aerobic performance. 1 One major issue in the

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Tomasz Skowronek, Grzegorz Juras, and Kajetan J. Słomka

swimming is also conditioned by this phenomenon, 4 – 6 in a way, where the sportsman acts according to an internal rhythm pattern, which may be regulated by external conditions (eg, hurdles running). Many of the above-mentioned sport disciplines are based on high-intensity anaerobic effort. 7 – 11 For the

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M. Travis Byrd, Jonathan Robert Switalla, Joel E. Eastman, Brian J. Wallace, Jody L. Clasey, and Haley C. Bergstrom

(less than one-third of the whole-body muscle mass; both upper limbs or 1 lower limb) and provides estimates of 2 distinct parameters, CP and anaerobic work capacity (AWC). Monod and Scherrer defined CP as “the maximum rate [a muscle] can keep up for a very long time without fatigue” 1(p339) and AWC as

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Nnamdi Gwacham and Dale R. Wagner

Consumption of energy drinks is common among athletes; however, there is a lack of research on the efficacy of these beverages for short-duration, intense exercise. The purpose of this research was to investigate the acute effects of a low-calorie caffeine-taurine energy drink (AdvoCare Spark) on repeated sprint performance and anaerobic power in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players. Twenty football players (age 19.7 ± 1.8 yr, height 184.9 ± 5.3 cm, weight 100.3 ± 21.7 kg) participated in a double-blind, randomized crossover study in which they received the energy drink or an isoenergetic, isovolumetric, noncaffeinated placebo in 2 trials separated by 7 days. The Running Based Anaerobic Sprint Test, consisting of six 35-m sprints with 10 s of rest between sprints, was used to assess anaerobic power. Sprint times were recorded with an automatic electronic timer. The beverage treatment did not significantly affect power (F = 3.84, p = .066) or sprint time (F = 3.06, p = .097). However, there was a significant interaction effect between caffeine use and the beverage for sprint times (F = 4.62, p = .045), as well as for anaerobic power (F = 5.40, p = .032), indicating a confounding effect. In conclusion, a caffeine-taurine energy drink did not improve the sprint performance or anaerobic power of college football players, but the level of caffeine use by the athletes likely influenced the effect of the drink.

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Bernhard Prinz, Dieter Simon, Harald Tschan, and Alfred Nimmerichter

PO was highly variable with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 69% and oscillated from 0 to 1000 W at the start of the race. Both studies demonstrated that XCO-MTB requires a high aerobic power with the ability to produce numerous short bursts where anaerobic pathways are important. Since the