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Cameron O’Beirne, Dawne Larkin and Tim Cable

Generally, children with coordination problems lack fitness and muscular strength. This study was designed to identify whether these children differed from age-matched controls on measures of anaerobic performance. Twenty-four boys who were poorly coordinated, from three age groups, 7, 8, and 9 years, were compared to 24 coordinated controls (N = 48). The McCarron (1982) Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND) was used to confirm levels of coordination. Anaerobic performance was estimated with the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) and a 50-m run. The poorly coordinated group’s performance on the WAnT was significantly lower than the performance of the controls for measures of peak power normalized for body weight, absolute and normalized mean power, and the fatigue index. The subjects who were poorly coordinated were also significantly slower performing the 50-m sprint. There was a significant relationship between power measured on the WAnT and coordination measured by the MAND gross motor score. For this population, coordination problems were considered among the factors that may interfere with the measurement of anaerobic performance.

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Natalia Morgulec, Andrzej Kosmol, Yves Vanlandewijck and Elzbieta Hubner-Wozniak

The purposes of this study were to compare the anaerobic performance of 19 active and 12 sedentary individuals with quadriplegia on the Wingate arm ergometric test and to investigate the relationship between participants’ demographic information (lesion level, time since injury, age, body mass) and their anaerobic performance variables. The following parameters were measured: peak power (PP), mean power (MP), lowest power (LP), time to achieve PP (t), fatigue index (FI), relative values of PP and MP with respect to body mass, and postexercise blood lactate accumulation (LA). Lowest power, MP, relative values of MP (rMP), FI and LApeak in the active group were significantly higher than in the sedentary group. There was a significant correlation between rMP and injury lesion level (p = .016). It was concluded that for active individuals with quadriplegia, muscle endurance (MP) and fatigability (FI) are higher than for sedentary individuals with quadriplegia.

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Raoul F. Reiser II, Michael L. Peterson and Jeffrey P. Broker

While the recumbent cycling position has become common for high-performance human-powered vehicles, questions still remain as to the influence of familiarity on recumbent cycling, the optimal riding position, and how recumbent cycling positions compare to the standard cycling position (SCP). Eight recumbent-familiar cyclists and 10 recreational control cyclists were compared using the 30-s Wingate test in 5 recumbent positions as well as the SCP. For the recumbent positions, hip position was maintained 15° below the bottom bracket while the backrest was altered to investigate body configuration angle (BCA: the angle between the bottom bracket, hip, and a marker at mid-torso) changes from 100° to 140° in 10° increments. Between-groups analysis found that only 4 of the 126 analyzed parameters differed significantly, with all trends in the same direction. Therefore both groups were combined for further analysis. Whole-group peak power (14.6 W/kg body mass) and average power (9.9 and 9.8 W/kg body mass, respectively) were greatest in the 130° and 140° BCA positions, with power dropping off as BCA decreased through 100° (peak = 12.4 W/kg body mass; avg. = 9.0 W/kg body mass). Power output in the SCP (peak = 14.6 W/kg body mass; avg. = 9.7 W/kg body mass) was similar to that produced in the 130° and 140° recumbent BCA. Average hip and ankle angles increased (became more extended/ plantar-flexed), 36° and 10°, respectively, with recumbent BCA, while knee angles remained constant. The lower extremity kinematics of the 130° and 140° BCA were most similar to those of the SCP. However, SCP hip and knee joints were slightly extended and the ankle joint was slightly plantar-flexed compared to these two recumbent positions, even though the BCA of the SCP was not significantly different. These findings suggest: (a) the amount of recumbent familiarity in this study did not produce changes in power output or kinematics; (b) BCA is a major determinant of power output; and (c) recumbent-position anaerobic power output matches that of the SCP when BCA is maintained, even though lower extremity kinematics may be altered.

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Danny Too

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of systematic changes in hip position/configuration on cycling peak anaerobic power (AP) and anaerobic capacity (AC). Fourteen male recreational cyclists (ages 21-32 yrs) were tested in four hip positions (25, 50, 75, and 100°), as defined by the angle formed by the seat tube and a vertical line. Rotating the seat to maintain a backrest perpendicular to the ground induced a systematic decrease in hip angle from the 25 to the 100° position. The Wingate anaerobic cycling test was used on a Monark cycle ergometer with a resistance of 85 gm/kg of the subject’s body mass. Repeated-measures MANOVAs and post hoc tests revealed that AP and AC in the 75° hip position were significantly greater than in the 25 or 100° position and that a second-order function best describes the trend in AP and AC with changes in hip position.

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William J. Kraemer, Ana L. Gómez, Nicholas A. Ratamess, Jay R. Hoffman, Jeff S. Volek, Martyn R. Rubin, Timothy P. Scheett, Michael R. McGuigan, Duncan French, Jaci L. VanHeest, Robbin B. Wickham, Brandon Doan, Scott A. Mazzetti, Robert U. Newton and Carl M. Maresh

Objective:

To determine the effects of Vicoprofen®, ibuprofen, and placebo on anaerobic performance and pain relief after resistance-exercise-induced muscle damage.

De-sign:

Randomized, controlled clinical study.

Setting:

University human-performance/sports-medicine laboratory.

Participants:

36 healthy men.

Methods and Measures:

After baseline testing (72 h), participants performed an eccentric-exercise protocol. Each was evaluated for pain 24 h later and randomly assigned to a Vicoprofen (VIC), ibuprofen (IBU), or placebo (P) group. Postexercise testing was performed every 24 h for 4 d.

Results:

Significantly greater muscle force, power, and total work were observed in VIC than in P (P < .05) for most time points and for IBU at 48 h.

Conclusions:

Anaerobic performance is enhanced with VIC, especially within the first 24 h after significant muscle-tissue damage. The greater performances observed at 48 h might be a result of less damage at this time point with VIC treatment.

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Neslihan Duruturk, Nihan Ozunlu Pekyavas, Atakan Yρlmaz and Metin Karatas

Objective:

Aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities are important components of athletic performance. The use of Kinesio Taping® (KT) as a supplementary treatment in athletic settings has increased in the recent years. KT can facilitate muscle contraction, which may be useful for improving performance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the application of KT to the quadriceps muscle has any effect on anaerobic and aerobic performance in young healthy individuals.

Design:

Randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical study.

Setting:

Baskent University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation.

Patients:

Thirty-two healthy male participants were randomly assigned to either the KT group or a sham KT (SKT) group.

Interventions:

The KT muscle facilitation technique was applied to the quadriceps muscle bilaterally and measurements were taken 45 min later to ensure full adhesion.

Main Outcome Measures:

The Wingate cycle ergometer test was used to assess peak anaerobic power (peak AnP, in Watts) and exercise capacity (Watt/kg), while the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) was used to assess aerobic exercise capacity of the participants. Comparisons between groups were performed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test, while those between baseline and posttaping used the nonparametric Wilcoxon test.

Results:

No significant difference was found between the two groups in the aerobic or anaerobic test parameters (p > .05). Within the groups, a significant improvement in time factors in peak AnP (929.7 2 ± 184.37 W to 1043.49 ± 224.42 W) was found only in the KT group (p = .028) and no other parameter was significantly different (p > .05).

Conclusions:

KT applied to the quadriceps muscle can positively improve anaerobic exercise performance and athletic performance capacity. However, KT did not affect aerobic capacity. Further research is needed to show that KT can improve and support anaerobic and aerobic exercise capacity in healthy participants or athletes.

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Yeshayahu Hutzler, Yves Vanlandewijck and Monica Van Vlierberghe

The purpose was to compare the anaerobic performance of male and female wheelchair basketball players in the 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT), performed on a mobile wheelchair ergometer. Participants were 10 female and 10 male wheelchair basketball players, aged 39 to 56, from a provincial wheelchair basketball team. Variables measured included peak and mean velocity and power, as well as the fatigue indices. Test-retest reliability, based on 13 participants (7 males and 6 females), ranged from .88 to .95 for peak and mean power and velocity variables and from .40 to .62 for the fatigue indices. Findings for the sample of 20 indicated that (a) males had significantly higher peak and mean velocity and power than females, and (b) females had significantly higher velocity fatigue indices than males.

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David J Dominguese, Jeff Seegmiller and B. Andrew Krause

Context:

Lower extremity injury is prevalent among individuals participating in sports. Numerous variables have been reported as predisposing risk factors to injury; however, the effects of muscle fatigue on landing kinetics are unclear.

Objectives:

To investigate the effects of a single session of repeated muscle fatigue on peak vertical ground-reaction force (GRF) during drop landings.

Design:

Mixed factorial with repeated measures.

Setting:

Controlled laboratory.

Participants:

10 female and 10 male healthy recreational athletes.

Intervention:

Subjects performed 3 fatigued drop landings (60 cm) after four 20-s Wingate anaerobic tests (WATs) with 5 min of active recovery between fatigued conditions.

Main Outcome Measures:

Kinetic data of peak forefoot (F1) force, peak rear-foot (F2) force, and anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) forces at both F1 and F2.

Results:

A significant main effect was observed in the nonfatigued and fatigued drop landings in respect to peak F2 force. The greatest significant difference was shown between the first fatigued drop-landing condition and the last fatigued drop-landing condition. No significant difference was observed between genders for all GRF variables across fatigue conditions.

Conclusion:

A single session of repeated conditions of anaerobic muscle fatigue induced by WATs caused an initial reduction in peak F2 force followed by an increase in peak F2 force across conditions. Muscle fatigue consequently alters landing kinetics, potentially increasing the risk of injury.

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Oleg Verbitsky, Joseph Mizrahi, Arkady Voloshin, July Treiger and Eli Isakov

The goal of this research was to analyze the effects of fatigue on the shock waves generated by foot strike. Twenty-two subjects were instrumented with an externally attached, lightweight accelerometer placed over the tibial tuberosity. The subjects ran on a treadmill for 30 min at a speed near their anaerobic threshold. Fatigue was established when the end-tidal CO2 pressure decreased. The results indicated that approximately half of the subjects reached the fatigue state toward the end of the test. Whenever fatigue occurred, the peak acceleration was found to increase. It was thus concluded that there is a clear association between fatigue and increased heel strike–induced shock waves. These results have a significant implication for the etiology of running injuries, since shock wave attenuation has been previously reported to play an important role in preventing such injuries.

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Kari L. Keskinen and Paavo V. Komi

The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the relationships among the stroking characteristics between different phases of swimming exercises, and to determine whether these relationships would change in relation to enhanced swimming intensity. The experimental design consisted of the measurement of mean velocity (V), stroke rate (SR), stroke length (SL), and duration of different phases of a stroke cycle for each pool length in five to six 400-m swims and two 100-m swims. The results showed that the basic relationships among the stroke parameters during the test exercises were almost similar to those observed in competition. However, the relationships changed with enhanced swimming intensity. It is suggested that the degree of anaerobic lactacid metabolism may determine the characteristics of stroking while swimming. The reduction of SL above the lactate threshold would be connected to the accumulation of blood lactate, whereas SR would primarily be determined by the ability to maintain adequate neural activation.