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Mariana R. Silva, Cristine L. Alberton, Caroline O. Braga and Stephanie S. Pinto

subsequent session, the participants performed an aquatic maximal incremental test to assess the HR corresponding to the anaerobic threshold (HR AT ). Finally, in the third and fourth sessions, the participants performed 2 experimental protocols in a counterbalanced order: resistance prior to (RA) or after

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Dominic Micklewright, Murray Griffin, Valerie Gladwell and Ralph Beneke

A within subjects experimental design (N = 16) was used where participants performed a 30-s Wingate anaerobic cycling test (WAnT) after 30-min rest and after 30-min back massage. Mood State was measured before and after each intervention and after the WAnTs. No significant change in mood was detected following rest or massage. However, WAnT performance was better following massage compared to rest. Mood disturbance increased following the WAnT in both the rest and massage conditions. The results suggest that preperformance massage had no effect on mood state yet seemed to facilitate enhanced WAnT performance. The relationship between massage and anaerobic performance remains unclear, however is almost certainly mediated by preperformance psychological factors other than mood state.

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Gina Sobrero, Scott Arnett, Mark Schafer, Whitley Stone, T. A. Tolbert, Amanda Salyer-Funk, Jason Crandall, Lauren B. Farley, Josh Brown, Scott Lyons, Travis Esslinger, Keri Esslinger and Jill Maples

High intensity functional training (HIFT) emphasizes constantly varied, high intensity, functional activity by programming strength and conditioning exercises, gymnastics, Olympic weightlifting, and specialty movements. Conversely, traditional circuit training (TCT) programs aim to improve muscular fitness by utilizing the progressive overload principle, similar movements weekly, and specified work-to-rest ratios. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if differences exist in health and performance measures in women participating in HIFT or TCT after a six-week training program. Recreationally active women were randomly assigned to a HIFT (n = 8, age 26.0 + 7.3 yrs) or TCT (n = 11, age 26.3 + 9.6 yrs) group. Participants trained three days a week for six weeks with certified trainers. Investigators examined body composition (BC), aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscular strength, endurance, flexibility, power, and agility. Repeated-measures ANOVA were used for statistical analyses with an alpha level of 0.05. Both groups increased body mass (p = .011), and improved muscular endurance (p < .000), upper body strength (p = .007), lower body power (p = .029) and agility (p = .003). In addition, the HIFT group decreased body fat (BF) %, while the TCT group increased BF% (p = .011). No changes were observed in aerobic or anaerobic capacity, flexibility, upper body power, or lower body stair climbing power. Newer, high intensity functional exercise programs such as HIFT may have better results on BC and similar effects when compared with TCT programs on health and fitness variables such as musculoskeletal strength and performance.

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Joni S. Yates, Stephanie Studenski, Steven Gollub, Robert Whitman, Subashan Perera, Sue Min Lai and Pamela W. Duncan

This study evaluated the feasibility, safety, and findings from a protocol for exercise-bicycle ergometry in subacute-stroke survivors. Of 117 eligible candidates, 14 could not perform the test and 3 discontinued because of cardiac safety criteria. In the 100 completed tests, peak heart rate was 116 ± 19.1 beats/min; peak VO2 was 11.4 ± 3.7 ml · kg · min−1, peak METs were 3.3 ± 0.91, exercise duration was 5.1 ± 2.84 min., and Borg score was 14 ± 2.6. Among 71 tests, anaerobic threshold was achieved in 3.0 ± 1.7 min with a VO2 of 8.6 ± 1.7 ml · kg · min−1. After screening, this protocol is feasible and safe in subacute-stroke survivors with mild to moderate deficits. These stroke survivors have severely limited functional exercise capacity. Research and clinical practice in stroke rehabilitation should incorporate more comprehensive evaluation and treatment of endurance limitations.

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Sebastian Ludyga, Thomas Gronwald and Kuno Hottenrott

Although men and women are suggested to vary in resistance to fatigue, possible sex difference in its central component have rarely been investigated via electroencephalography (EEG). Therefore, we examined differences in cortical activity between male and female cyclists (n = 26) during cycling exercise. Participants performed an incremental test to derive the anaerobic threshold from the lactate power curve. In addition, cyclists’ cortical activity was recorded with EEG before and during cycling exercise. Whereas women showed higher frontal alpha and beta activity at rest, no sex-specific differences of relative EEG spectral power occurred during cycling at higher intensity. Women and men’s brains respond similarly during submaximal cycling, as both sexes show an inverted U-shaped curve of alpha power. Therefore, sex differences observable at rest vanish after the onset of exercise.

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Elena Fedotova

Morphological parameters (stature, weight, segment lengths, diameters, circumferences, body composition), functional characteristics (work capacity, respiratory performance, static strength of hand) and aspects of health- and skill-related fitness (explosive strength, speed, anaerobic and aerobic endurance, agility) of 141 well-trained young female field hockey players (10 to 18 y) were examined and analyzed. The main purpose of the investigation was to study growth trends of these parameters of female field hockey players and to analyze the character and feature of their development.

Standard anthropometric measurements were used for evaluation of morphological characteristics. Matiegka’s equations were used for computation of body composition’s parameters. Modification of the Harvard step test was used for estimation of physical capacity. Respiratory performance was evaluated using vitalograph. Static strength of the hands was obtained using a handgrip. Characteristics of health- and skill-related fitness were evaluated using the following test battery: standing broad jump, 30 m dash run, flying 30 m test, 210 yards shuttle run, 2000 m run, push-ups and 20 m zig-zag run.

Results of the study were as follows: the functional characteristics have the greatest total increase (about 108-144 %) during the age span considered (from 10 to 18 years). Stature and other length parameters increased about 18-20 %. The periods of the acceleration of increases in morphological parameters precede the periods of the sizable increases in functional parameters. Based upon the analysis of aspects of health- and skill-related fitness of players training and practicing in hockey has a beneficial effect on this group of characteristics. Based on the results of the study, the optimum periods for speed, strength and endurance training of female hockey players are exposed.

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Miguel A. Sanchez-Lastra, Vicente de Dios Álvarez and Carlos Ayán Pérez

during 10 min. IG2: Sessions of 60 min, 2 d/wk. The warm-up consisted of moderate bicycle during 10 min. The main part consisted of anaerobic training (sprint) at 90% HRR during 20 min with 3 series, followed by 5 series with 2 min of rest. Afterward, anaerobic training (pedaling) at 90% HRR followed by

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Rochelle R. Costa, Adriana C.K. Buttelli, Leandro Coconcelli, Laura F. Pereira, Alexandra F. Vieira, Alex de O. Fagundes, Juliano B. Farinha, Thais Reichert, Ricardo Stein and Luiz F.M. Kruel

), and lipid (LIP) content were expressed as percentages of the total daily energy intake value (TEV). In addition, a water-based incremental test was performed to determine the HR deflection point, taken as the anaerobic threshold (HR AT ) point. This was used as an indicator of aerobic training

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Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Stefania Di Gangi and Beat Knechtle

addition to anthropometry and training characteristics ( Rust et al., 2011 ), the race time in half-marathon has been shown to relate to maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), speed at the anaerobic threshold, and maximal aerobic speed ( Gomez-Molina et al., 2017 ). VO 2 max in endurance exercise

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Marcus Colon, Andrew Hodgson, Eimear Donlon and James E.J. Murphy

-aerobic capacity ( O’Toole & Douglas, 1995 ) and that triathlon training leads to a greater level of fat metabolism and lower levels of glycogen depletion ( O’Toole, Douglas, & Hiller, 1989 ), which allows athletes to rely more on the oxidative energy pathways rather than anaerobic metabolism leading to the