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Gina Sobrero, Scott Arnett, Mark Schafer, Whitley Stone, T. A. Tolbert, Amanda Salyer-Funk, Jason Crandall, Lauren B. Farley, Josh Brown, Scott Lyons, Travis Esslinger, Keri Esslinger and Jill Maples

High intensity functional training (HIFT) emphasizes constantly varied, high intensity, functional activity by programming strength and conditioning exercises, gymnastics, Olympic weightlifting, and specialty movements. Conversely, traditional circuit training (TCT) programs aim to improve muscular fitness by utilizing the progressive overload principle, similar movements weekly, and specified work-to-rest ratios. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if differences exist in health and performance measures in women participating in HIFT or TCT after a six-week training program. Recreationally active women were randomly assigned to a HIFT (n = 8, age 26.0 + 7.3 yrs) or TCT (n = 11, age 26.3 + 9.6 yrs) group. Participants trained three days a week for six weeks with certified trainers. Investigators examined body composition (BC), aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscular strength, endurance, flexibility, power, and agility. Repeated-measures ANOVA were used for statistical analyses with an alpha level of 0.05. Both groups increased body mass (p = .011), and improved muscular endurance (p < .000), upper body strength (p = .007), lower body power (p = .029) and agility (p = .003). In addition, the HIFT group decreased body fat (BF) %, while the TCT group increased BF% (p = .011). No changes were observed in aerobic or anaerobic capacity, flexibility, upper body power, or lower body stair climbing power. Newer, high intensity functional exercise programs such as HIFT may have better results on BC and similar effects when compared with TCT programs on health and fitness variables such as musculoskeletal strength and performance.

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Elena Fedotova

Morphological parameters (stature, weight, segment lengths, diameters, circumferences, body composition), functional characteristics (work capacity, respiratory performance, static strength of hand) and aspects of health- and skill-related fitness (explosive strength, speed, anaerobic and aerobic endurance, agility) of 141 well-trained young female field hockey players (10 to 18 y) were examined and analyzed. The main purpose of the investigation was to study growth trends of these parameters of female field hockey players and to analyze the character and feature of their development.

Standard anthropometric measurements were used for evaluation of morphological characteristics. Matiegka’s equations were used for computation of body composition’s parameters. Modification of the Harvard step test was used for estimation of physical capacity. Respiratory performance was evaluated using vitalograph. Static strength of the hands was obtained using a handgrip. Characteristics of health- and skill-related fitness were evaluated using the following test battery: standing broad jump, 30 m dash run, flying 30 m test, 210 yards shuttle run, 2000 m run, push-ups and 20 m zig-zag run.

Results of the study were as follows: the functional characteristics have the greatest total increase (about 108-144 %) during the age span considered (from 10 to 18 years). Stature and other length parameters increased about 18-20 %. The periods of the acceleration of increases in morphological parameters precede the periods of the sizable increases in functional parameters. Based upon the analysis of aspects of health- and skill-related fitness of players training and practicing in hockey has a beneficial effect on this group of characteristics. Based on the results of the study, the optimum periods for speed, strength and endurance training of female hockey players are exposed.

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Kristi A. Allain

, used a sport science model to explain what makes a good curler: You’ve got to be fit. You’ve got to have the endurance down. [The] anaerobic lactic system is the biggest for curling, because it’s short bursts for 20 to 30 seconds of sweeping. Throwing, you need to be flexible too, because of the

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Clayton R. Kuklick and Brian T. Gearity

anaerobic exercise, and program design of S&C. A similar program is sponsored at the graduate level, but with the added requirement of coursework in research methods and statistics, along with electives in a range of fields such as sports psychology, injury prevention, lifespan development, nutrition, and

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Chris G. Harwood and Sam N. Thrower

arousal, improve choice reaction times ( Bishop et al., 2009 ), and increase peak anaerobic power ( Eliakim et al., 2007 ). Studies have also directly compared the effectiveness of music against other psychological strategies. For example, Miller and Donohue ( 2003 ) examined the influence of two mental

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Kenneth E. Powell and Steven N. Blair

encompass the full range of physical activity intensities and not just MVPA. What Is Aerobic Physical Activity? The classic definition of aerobic physical activity is activity that can be maintained using only oxygen-supported metabolic pathways. Anaerobic activities are those that exceed the capacity of

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Kendra R. Todd and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

induced by aerobic and anaerobic exercise, one’s ability to be physically active is highly dependent on autonomic activity. Impaired autonomic control and the inability to effectively cool make exercising at a moderate to vigorous intensity more difficult and contribute to exercise intolerance ( Teasell