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Larry G. Matson and Zung Vu Tran

Many researchers have investigated the effects of induced metabolic alkalosis, by ingestion of sodium bicarbonate, on anaerobic exercise performance. But the results have been inconsistent and often contradictory. The purpose of this review was to synthesize the varied findings using a meta-analytic approach. Twenty-nine investigations met our inclusion criteria. Results show that NaHCO3, ingestion clearly results in a more alkaline extracellular environment. The dosage, however, was only moderately related to the increase in pH and HCO3-. Overall, performance was enhanced but the range of effect sizes was large, -0.12 to 2.87. In studies that measured time to exhaustion, there was a mean 27±20% increase in duration. The treatment effect, however, was only weakly related to the degree of induced alkalosis. But in comparing the 19 studies that showed a positive treatment effect with the 16 that showed no effect, the former were associated with a greater increase in pH following ingestion of a somewhat larger dosage, and a greater decrease in pH with exercise.

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Kenneth R. Turley, Paola A. Eusse, Myles M. Thomas, Jeremy R. Townsend and Aaron B. Morton

This study investigated effects of low (1 mg·kg−1), moderate (3 mg·kg−1) and high (5 mg·kg−1) doses of caffeine on anaerobic performance in boys. Twenty-six 8- to 10-year-old boys participated in a double-blind, crossover, counter-balanced study. Boys received in random order a placebo (PL) or anhydrous caffeine: 1 (CAF-1), 3 (CAF-3), or 5 (CAF-5) mg caffeine·kg−1 body mass in cherry flavored Sprite. Sixty minutes following consumption boys performed a static handgrip test and then a 30-s Wingate test. Maximal grip strength (21.5 ± 4.9 & 21.6 ± 4.7 vs. 20.4 ± 4.0 kg) was significantly higher in CAF-5 & CAF-3 vs PL, respectively. Absolute and relative peak power (287 ± 72 vs 281 ± 69 W & 8.0 ± 0.9 vs 7.8 ± 1.0 W·kg−1) were significantly higher in CAF-3 vs PL, respectively. Mean power (153 ± 48 vs 146 ± 43 W) was significantly higher in CAF-5 vs PL, respectively. Peak Wingate HR was significantly higher (189 ± 8 vs 185 ± 9 beats·min−1) in CAF-5 vs PL, respectively. These findings suggest that in boys CAF-1 did not affect performance. During the Wingate test CAF-3 resulted in higher peak power while CAF-5 increased mean power. The significant increase in peak HR following the Wingate test is likely related to greater mean power generated during CAF-5.

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Reginald L. Washington

The ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) occurs when there is an isolated increase in the slope for ventilator equivalent for oxygen consumption (VE/VO2) with no change in the slope for ventilatoiy equivalent for carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) when both are plotted against time. The concept of anaerobic threshold remains controversial. However, it is a clinically useful tool in evaluating the exercise capacity of children. This paper will review the history, biochemistry, and methodology involved in determining the anaerobic threshold, as well as the ventilatory anaerobic threshold in children.

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M. Travis Byrd, Jonathan Robert Switalla, Joel E. Eastman, Brian J. Wallace, Jody L. Clasey and Haley C. Bergstrom

(less than one-third of the whole-body muscle mass; both upper limbs or 1 lower limb) and provides estimates of 2 distinct parameters, CP and anaerobic work capacity (AWC). Monod and Scherrer defined CP as “the maximum rate [a muscle] can keep up for a very long time without fatigue” 1(p339) and AWC as

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Dionne A. Noordhof, Philip F. Skiba and Jos J. de Koning

Anaerobic capacity/anaerobically attributable power is an important parameter for athletic performance, not only for short high-intensity activities but also for breakaway efforts and end spurts during endurance events. Unlike aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity cannot be easily quantified. The 3 most commonly used methodologies to quantify anaerobic capacity are the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit method, the critical power concept, and the gross efficiency method. This review describes these methods, evaluates if they result in similar estimates of anaerobic capacity, and highlights how anaerobic capacity is used during sporting activities. All 3 methods have their own strengths and weaknesses and result in more or less similar estimates of anaerobic capacity but cannot be used interchangeably. The method of choice depends on the research question or practical goal.

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Gareth N. Sandford, Sian V. Allen, Andrew E. Kilding, Angus Ross and Paul B. Laursen

Preparation for 800-m running represents a unique challenge to the middle-distance coach. With close interplay required between aerobic and anaerobic/neuromuscular physiology, athletes with distinctly different profiles have an opportunity for success in the event. Recently, a “changing of the

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Farid Farhani, Hamid Rajabi, Raoof Negaresh, Ajmol Ali, Sadegh Amani Shalamzari and Julien S. Baker

agility and sprint running performance but lower vertical jump and half-squat power performance than soccer. 3 , 4 The ratio of activity to rest in futsal is about 1:1, and although there is a high anaerobic demand, more than 75% of all energy is resynthesized by the oxidative phosphorylation pathway

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Tiago Turnes, Rafael Penteado dos Santos, Rafael Alves de Aguiar, Thiago Loch, Leonardo Trevisol Possamai and Fabrizio Caputo

running. 10 A similarity between [HHb]BP and maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) seems to occur in sedentary 7 and trained athletes. 10 Furthermore, contradictory results have been observed when comparing [HHb]BP with the anaerobic threshold (AnT) using a fixed BLC of 4 mmol·L −1 . 10 Although MLSS is

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Nnamdi Gwacham and Dale R. Wagner

Consumption of energy drinks is common among athletes; however, there is a lack of research on the efficacy of these beverages for short-duration, intense exercise. The purpose of this research was to investigate the acute effects of a low-calorie caffeine-taurine energy drink (AdvoCare Spark) on repeated sprint performance and anaerobic power in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players. Twenty football players (age 19.7 ± 1.8 yr, height 184.9 ± 5.3 cm, weight 100.3 ± 21.7 kg) participated in a double-blind, randomized crossover study in which they received the energy drink or an isoenergetic, isovolumetric, noncaffeinated placebo in 2 trials separated by 7 days. The Running Based Anaerobic Sprint Test, consisting of six 35-m sprints with 10 s of rest between sprints, was used to assess anaerobic power. Sprint times were recorded with an automatic electronic timer. The beverage treatment did not significantly affect power (F = 3.84, p = .066) or sprint time (F = 3.06, p = .097). However, there was a significant interaction effect between caffeine use and the beverage for sprint times (F = 4.62, p = .045), as well as for anaerobic power (F = 5.40, p = .032), indicating a confounding effect. In conclusion, a caffeine-taurine energy drink did not improve the sprint performance or anaerobic power of college football players, but the level of caffeine use by the athletes likely influenced the effect of the drink.

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Linda D. Zwiren

This paper deals with the measurement of aerobic and anaerobic power in children, and how these capacities are affected by growth and training. The type of tests available, the selection of ergometer, establishment of criteria for determining whether a maximal value has been attained, and the limitations of the various expressions of maximal values are discussed. Aerobic capacity, when expressed in liters per minute, has been observed to increase with growth; when expressed relative to body weight, aerobic capacity has been shown to remain the same or decrease with age. Anaerobic capacity increases with age no matter how the values are expressed. Limited evidence suggests that training during prepubescence does not increase aerobic capacity beyond that expected from growth. Several methodological limitations of longitudinal studies are examined.