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Gert-Jan de Bruijn, Ruben de Groot, Bas van den Putte and Ryan Rhodes

The present study explored the influence of the Big Five dimensions extroversion and conscientiousness on action control regarding both moderate and vigorous physical activity within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Prospective data were available from 186 respondents, who completed measures of intention, cognitive and affective attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, extroversion, conscientiousness, and physical activity at T1. Four weeks later, physical activity was assessed again. Respondents were grouped into four profiles: nonintenders, successful nonintenders, unsuccessful intenders, and successful intenders. Logistic regression analyses revealed that successful enactment in moderate physical activity was associated with extroversion, subjective norm, and affective attitude, whereas successful enactment in vigorous physical activity was associated with conscientiousness. Findings illustrate the differential role played by personality dimensions and TPB concepts in the explanation of moderate and vigorous physical activity action control.

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Stuart J. Fairclough, Nicola D. Ridgers and Gregory Welk

Background:

Vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) may confer superior health benefits for children compared to moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA), but the correlates of MPA and VPA may differ. The study purpose was to investigate associations between selected enabling, predisposing, and demographic physical activity correlates, and MPA and VPA during weekdays and at weekends.

Methods:

Data were gathered from 175 children (aged 10 to 11 years). MPA and VPA were assessed using accelerometers. Correlates were measured at child and school levels. Multilevel analyses identified correlates that significantly predicted MPA and VPA.

Results:

Gender significantly predicted weekday MPA (P < .001), and weekend MPA (P = .022) and VPA (P = .035). Weekday VPA was predicted by gender (P < .001), indices of multiple deprivation score (P < .003), BMI (P = .018), and school playground area (P = .046).

Conclusions:

Gender was the most significant correlate of MPA and VPA. Children most likely to engage in weekday VPA were boys with lower deprivation scores and BMI values, with access to larger playground areas.

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Sandra Silva-Santos, Amanda Santos, Michael Duncan, Susana Vale and Jorge Mota

Introduction: Adequate gross motor coordination is essential for children participating in age-related physical activities and has an important role in maintaining sufficient physical activity levels during the life course. Aim: To examine the association between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and gross motor coordination during sedentary behavior in early childhood (ages 3–6 y). Methods: The sample comprised 209 children aged 3–6 y. Gross motor coordination was assessed according to the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2). The battery to assess gross motor coordination comprised the aiming and catching, and balance components. MVPA was measured by accelerometry worn for 7 consecutive days (Monday to Sunday). Results: Our data indicated that 31.5% of the sample had low, 32.5% medium, and 36.0% high gross motor coordination. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that MVPA was positively associated with gross motor coordination, adjusted for gender and sedentary behavior. Conclusions: Preschoolers with high gross motor coordination spend more time in MVPA. Gross motor coordination development should therefore be a key strategy in childhood interventions aiming to promote physical activity.

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Alison Griffin, Tim Roselli and Susan L. Clemens

Background: Health benefits of physical activity (PA) accrue with small increases in PA, with the greatest benefits for those transitioning from inactivity to any level of PA. This study examined whether self-reported PA time in Queensland adults changed between 2004 and 2018. Methods: The Queensland government conducts regular cross-sectional telephone surveys. Between 2004 and 2018, adults aged 18–75 years answered identical questions about their weekly minutes of walking, moderate PA, and vigorous PA. Hurdle regression estimated the average annual change in weekly minutes of PA overall and by activity type, focusing on sociodemographic differences in trends. Results: The sample size averaged 1764 (2004–2008) and 10,188 (2009–2018), totaling 107,171 participants aged 18–75 years. Unadjusted PA increased by 10 minutes per week per year (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.8–11.1) overall, with increases for most subgroups. Adjusted PA increased by 10.5 minutes per week per year (95% CI, 9.4–11.7). Trends differed by employment—employed adults and those not in the labor force increased by 14.3 (95% CI, 12.8–15.8) and 2.2 minutes per week per year (95% CI, 0.4–4.0), respectively, with no increase for unemployed adults. The increases were due to both an increased prevalence of doing any activity and an increased average duration among active adults. Conclusions: Since 2004, PA time has increased for Queensland adults, with substantial variability by employment status.

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Anne L. Adolph, Maurice R. Puyau, Firoz A. Vohra, Theresa A. Nicklas, Issa F. Zakeri and Nancy F. Butte

Purpose:

Given the unique physical activity (PA) patterns of preschoolers, wearable electronic devices for quantitative assessment of physical activity require validation in this population. Study objective was to validate uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers in preschoolers.

Methods:

Room calorimetry was performed over 3 hours in 64 preschoolers, wearing Actical, Actiheart, and RT3 accelerometers during play, slow, moderate, and fast translocation. Based on activity energy expenditure (AEE) and accelerometer counts, optimal thresholds for PA levels were determined by piecewise linear regression and discrimination boundary analysis.

Results:

Established HR cutoffs in preschoolers for sedentary/light, light/moderate and moderate/vigorous levels were used to define AEE (0.015, 0.054, 0.076 kcal·kg−1·min−1) and PA ratio (PAR; 1.6, 2.9, 3.6) thresholds, and accelerometer thresholds. True positive predictive rates were 77%, 75%, and 76% for sedentary; 63%, 61%, and 65% for light; 34%, 52%, and 49% for moderate; 46%, 46%, and 49% for vigorous levels. Due to low positive predictive rates, we combined moderate and vigorous PA. Classification accuracy was improved overall and for the combined moderate-to-vigorous PA level (69%, 82%, 79%) for Actical, Actiheart, and RT3, respectively.

Conclusion:

Uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers are acceptable devices with similar classification accuracy for sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous levels of PA in preschoolers.

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Magnus Dencker, Tina Tanha, Per Wollmer, Magnus K. Karlsson, Lars Bo Andersen and Ola Thorsson

Background:

Limited data exist of tracking and changes in accelerometer-measured physical activity in children.

Methods:

Physical activity was assessed by accelerometers for 4 days in 167 children (boys, n = 90; girls n = 77) age 9.8 ± 0.6 years. Follow-up measurement was made 2.0 ± 0.1 yrs later (range 1.9−2.1 yrs). General physical activity (GPA) was defined as mean count/minute. Minutes of inactivity; light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity (LMVPA); moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA); and vigorous physical activity (VPA) per day were calculated both as absolute values and as percentage of total registration time.

Results:

Spearman rank order correlation indicated low tracking of MVPA and VPA in girls (r = .25−0.33, P < .05), and low-moderate tracking of GPA, inactivity, LMVPA, MVPA and VPA in boys (r = .23−0.40, P < .05). Time in inactivity increased at follow-up by 5%−14%. Most of the assessed physical activity variables were decreased at follow-up by 6% to 30%.

Conclusions:

Physical activity tracks at a low-moderate degree from age 10−12 years, which confirm previous investigations that have used self-report assessments. The low-moderate tracking of physical activity variables indicate that those who were most active initially remained most active. Increasing inactive behavior was observed and that several other physical activity variables were decreased at follow-up.

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Pedro Curi Hallal and Fernando Vinholes Siqueira

Background:

Physical inactivity is now a public health priority because of the high rates of inactivity observed worldwide. Achievement of physical activity guidelines could be attained with vigorous, moderate, or both activities combined. Our aim was to explore the prevalence and correlates of compliance with vigorous physical activity guidelines (CVAG).

Methods:

Cross-sectional population-based survey in Pelotas, a southern Brazilian city, including 3182 adults (≥ 20 years). The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was applied by face-to-face interviews. CVAG was defined as at least 60 min/wk of vigorous activity.

Results:

Only 29% of the subjects achieved the vigorous activity threshold. Women, older adults, individuals with low BMI (< 18.5 kg/m2) or obese (≥ 30 kg/m2) were less likely to present CVAG. Compliance with moderate activity guidelines was associated with a higher likelihood of CVAG.

Conclusions:

Concurrent promotion of moderate and vigorous physical activities is warranted in terms of public health.

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Phil Hamdorf, Gary Starr and Mark Williams

Participation in physical activity declines with advancing age for a variety of reasons. The aim of this study was to assess the level of physical activity among older South Australians. Computer-aided telephone interviewing of 773 adults age 60 years and over was conducted using random-digit dialing. Rates of participation among adults age 60 years and over in walking and vigorous physical activity (68.1% and 11.7%, respectively) were significantly lower than for those age 18–59 years (77.6% and 38.9%, respectively). Walking was the most popular activity among those age 60 and over. The proportion reporting no physical activity rose from 7.0% in the 60- to 64-year age group to 25.7% in the 85+ group. The findings describe increases in physical inactivity coupled with declines in functional ability with advancing age and suggest that much work remains to fully understand how best to encourage older adults to remain physically active.

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Deise J.A. Faleiro, Enaiane C. Menezes, Eduardo Capeletto, Felipe Fank, Rafaela M. Porto and Giovana Z. Mazo

Objective: To analyze the scientific evidence on the association of physical activity with urinary incontinence in older women. Design: Searches were performed in MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and ScienceDirect. Observational studies were included. The following search terms were used: urinary incontinence, older adult, and physical activity. Methodological quality was assessed using the checklist proposed by Downs and Black. Results: Ten articles were included. Sedentary lifestyle and <150 min/week of physical activity are at risk of developing urinary incontinence. Walking (at least 30 min) and physical activities (600–1,500 and 600 METs/min per week) prevent urinary incontinence. Seven of the 10 studies indicated a good level of methodological quality. Conclusions: Sedentary lifestyle is at risk of urinary incontinence, and walking, moderate and vigorous physical activities are associated with prevention of urinary incontinence.

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Jaakko Kaprio and Seppo Sarna

Occupational disability was investigated in former Finnish athletes in the Olympic Games, World or European championships, or intercountry competitions during 1920–1965 (N = 2,402 men) for eight selected sports. The referents were 1,712 men selected from the Finnish conscription register, matched on age and area of residence and classified as completely healthy. The first outcome measure was the length of working life based on the age when the subject was granted a disability pension, or age at death before age 65. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of mean working life expectancy was 61.4 years for endurance sport athletes, 60.0 years for team games athletes, and 59.2 years for power sport competitors, compared with 57.6 years for the reference group. Decreased coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular and respiratory morbidity were observed for all athletes when compared with the referent group. It was concluded that sustained and vigorous physical activity during early adulthood may extend the occupationally active life span and defer the onset of disability before retirement age.