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Jessyca N. Arthur-Cameselle and Molly Curcio

is only effective for roughly 50 to 70% of individuals with EDs (e.g.,  Keel & Brown, 2010 ). For those with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), there may even be strong reluctance to recover ( Nordbø et al., 2012 ), yet it is clear that motivation and readiness for change predicts success in ED treatment

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Paula Charest-Lilly, Claudine Sherrill and Joel Rosentswieg

The purpose of this study was to examine the estimated body composition values of women hospitalized for treatment of anorexia nervosa in relation to values reported in the literature for women without known dietary problems. Sixteen volunteers between the ages of 16 and 37 years from hospitals in California and Texas participated in the study. Data collected included height, weight, and selected skinfold and circumference measures. Statistical analyses included independent and paired t tests. Significant differences were found between the percent body fat of anorexic subjects (M = 15.54%) and that of normative women in the Jackson, Pollock, and Ward (1980) study (M = 24.09%). When the actual weight of the anorexic subjects (M = 99.3 lb) was compared with their theoretical minimal weight calculated by the Behnke (1969) formula (M = 106.5 lb), no significant difference was obtained. A comparison of somatogram data for the anorexic women and the reference woman found significant differences at 5 of the 11 sites measured.

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Steven Paul Coen and Benjamin M. Ogles

Several aspects of obligatory running are examined with particular emphasis on the anorexia analogue hypothesis. The psychometric characteristics of the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire were examined in a preliminary study. The OEQ is unrelated to socially desirable responding and has adequate reliability and validity. Data were collected from a second sample to identify obligatory and nonobligatory runners. Validation of the obligatory construct is examined by comparing demographic and training differences between obligatory and nonobligatory runners. Obligatory runners train more miles, days, and hours per week; have faster finishing times; are more likely to continue running when injured; and report feeling higher levels of anxiety when not running. The anorexia analogue hypothesis is examined by comparing the personality characteristics of obligatory and nonobligatory male marathon runners. Obligatory and nonobligatory runners were not significantly different on measures of identity diffusion or trait anger. They were significantly different on measures of perfectionism and trait anxiety.

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Tanja Hechler, Elizabeth Rieger, Stephen Touyz, Pierre Beumont, Guy Plasqui and Klaas Westerterp

The study aimed to compare differences in physical activity, the relationship between physical activity and body composition, and seasonal variation in physical activity in outpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and healthy controls. Physical activity (CM-AMT) and time spent in different intensities of 10 female individuals with AN and 15 female controls was assessed across three seasons along with the percentage body fat. The two groups did not differ in their physical activity and both demonstrated seasonal variation. The percentage body fat of individuals with AN, but not that of the controls, was negatively related to CM-AMT and time spent in low-moderate intesnity acitivy (LMI). Seasonal variation in physical activity emerged with increases in engagement in LMI during the summer period for both groups. Possible interpretations of the finding that decreased physical activity was related to a normalization of percentage body fat in the individuals with AN are discussed and implications for treatment are highlighted.

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Susan Carter

Center in Colorado Springs in 1982 at a meeting of the Athletic Amenorrhea Bulletin , when the singer Karen Carpenter was suffering from anorexia. Her situation brought heightened public awareness of the condition. As anorexia was one of the original concerns of the Triad, along with osteoporosis and

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Caroline Davis and Shaelyn Strachan

Some have claimed that the similarities between athletes with eating problems and women with eating disorders (ED) include only symptoms such as dieting and fear of weight gain, and do not extend to the psychopathological characteristics associated with these disorders. However, studies used to support this viewpoint have relied on comparisons between “eating-disturbed” athletes and clinically diagnosed ED patients, a method that confounds diagnostic classification with athlete status. The present study held ED classification constant by comparing ED patients who had been involved in high-level competitive athletics with nonathlete ED. No significant differences were found between the groups on any measures of psychopathology or eating-related symptoms; this suggests that if an athlete develops an eating disorder, her psychological profile is no different from others with this disorder.

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Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale, Bryan Holtzman and Kathryn E. Ackerman

-S has relied on studying populations assumed to be in a state of low EA. For example, FHA has been used as a surrogate marker for low EA. Women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and athletes with oligo-amenorrhea not from an organic cause can both be categorized as having FHA and have been studied to determine

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Heather A. Hausenblas and Albert V. Carron

Research shows inconclusive results pertaining to the comparison of eating disorder indices between athletes and nonathletes and among different subgroups of athletes. The purpose of this study was to meta-analytically review the literature on (a) bulimia nervosa indices, (b) anorexia nervosa indices, and (c) drive for thinness (a cardinal feature of both anorexia and bulimia) in male and female athletes. Results of 92 studies with 560 effect sizes (ES) revealed small ESs (range: −.01 to .30) in relation to group membership characteristics. Results for female athletes revealed small ESs for bulimia and anorexia indices, suggesting that female athletes self-reported more bulimic and anorexic symptomatology than control groups; nonsignificant group differences were evidenced for drive for thinness. Results for male athletes revealed small ESs on all three indices, suggesting that male athletes self-reported more eating disorder symptomatology than control groups. Moderator variables that might contribute to understanding the results are examined, and future research directions are presented.

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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

effectiveness of integrating exercise in treatment. Exercise has been shown to reinforce weight gain and increase body mass index (BMI) in inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and supervised aerobic and strength training exercises have been shown to effectively reduce eating disorder symptoms ( Calogero

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Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen

This study examined clinical and subclinical eating disorders (EDs) in young Norwegian modern rhythmic gymnasts. Subjects were 12 members of the national team, age 13-20 years, and individually matched nonathletic controls. All subjects participated in a structured clinical interview for EDs, medical examination, and dietary analysis. Two of the gymnasts met the DSM-III-R criteria for anorexia nervosa, and 2 met the criteria for anorexia athletica (a subclinical ED). AH the gymnasts were dieting in spite of the fact that they were all extremely lean. The avoidance of maturity, menstrual irregularities, energy deficit, high training volume, and high frequency of injuries were common features among the gymnasts. There is a need to learn more about risk factors and the etiology of EDs in different sports. Coaches, parents, and athletes need more information about principles of proper nutrition and methods to achieve ideal body composition for optimal health and athletic performance.