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Britton W. Brewer, Allen E. Cornelius, Judy L. Van Raalte and Howard Tennen

responses to sport injury, the main purpose of the current study was to examine longitudinally perceived adversarial growth after a single type of injury—a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)—using a multidimensional measure of adversarial growth. Use of a longitudinal research design afforded the

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Shelby A. Peel, Lauren E. Schroeder, Zachary A. Sievert and Joshua T. Weinhandl

Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are traumatic injuries that often occur in sports where running, landing, and cutting are primary movements. 1 Nearly 70% of all ACL injuries are classified as noncontact ACL injuries, 2 meaning there is no direct contact to the knee at the

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Walter Herzog and Lynda Read

The purpose of this study was to estimate cruciate ligament forces in Alpine skiing during a movement that has been associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Resultant knee joint forces and moments were obtained from two skiers during a World Cup Downhill race using an inverse dynamics approach and a 2-D bilaterally symmetric system model. It was found that ACL forces were typically small for both skiers throughout the movement analyzed because quadriceps forces prevented anterior displacement of the tibia relative to the femur at the knee joint angles observed. However, for about 10 ms, loading conditions in the knee joint of Subject 2 (who displayed poor form) were such that large ACL forces may have been present. These particular loading conditions were never observed in Subject 1, who displayed good form. Since neither of the skiers was injured, it is not possible to draw firm conclusions about isolated ACL tears in Alpine skiing from the data at hand.

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Sandra J. Shultz and Randy J. Schmitz

The increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in young, physically active females remains a pertinent and timely topic. In the last 5 years, the number of PubMed citations related to ACL risk in females has doubled. Females remain at greater risk than males for ACL injury ( Agel

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Liam Anderson, Graeme L. Close, Matt Konopinski, David Rydings, Jordan Milsom, Catherine Hambly, John Roger Speakman, Barry Drust and James P. Morton

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a troublesome and potentially serious injury in soccer that often requires surgical reconstruction ( Brophy et al., 2012 ). After ACL reconstruction, an athlete’s return-to-play time is reported to range from 16 to 52 weeks ( Zaffagnini et al., 2014

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Aaron Derouin and Jim R. Potvin

Injuries to the knee account for up to 60% of all sports injuries. 1 Almost half of all reported knee injuries involve disruption to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). 1 , 2 Functional knee braces are designed to provide support to unstable knees by reducing anterior tibial translation and

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Britton W. Brewer, Allen E. Cornelius, Judy Van Raalte, John C. Brickner, Howard Tennen, Joseph H. Sklar, John R. Corsetti and Mark H. Pohlman

The accuracy of retrospective ratings of pain intensity was examined in a sample of 72 men and 36 women undergoing rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery. Participants completed daily ratings of current, worst, and average pain intensity for the first 42 days of rehabilitation. Participants provided retrospective ratings of worst and average pain intensity twice for a 7-day period (on Days 7 and 21) and once for a 30-day period (on Day 30). Correlations between concurrent and retrospective pain ranged from .74 to .88. Retrospective pain ratings consistently overestimated concurrent pain ratings, but were generally not biased by current pain. The results suggest that retrospective pain ratings can substitute for concurrent pain ratings if the tendency toward overestimation is taken into account.

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Hidenori Tanikawa, Hideo Matsumoto, Ikki Komiyama, Yoshimori Kiriyama, Yoshiaki Toyama and Takeo Nagura

It has been suggested that noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury commonly occurs during sports requiring acute deceleration or landing motion and that female athletes are more likely to sustain the injury than male athletes. The purpose of this study was to make task-to-task and male-female comparisons of knee kinematics and kinetics in several athletic activities. Three-dimensional knee kinematics and kinetics were investigated in 20 recreational athletes (10 males, 10 females) while performing hopping, cutting, turning, and sidestep and running (sharp deceleration associated with a change of direction). Knee kinematics and kinetics were compared among the four athletic tasks and between sexes. Subjects exhibited significantly lower peak flexion angle and higher peak extension moment in hopping compared with other activities (P < .05). In the frontal plane, peak abduction angle and peak adduction moment in cutting, turning, and sidestep and running were significantly greater compared with hopping (P < .05). No differences in knee kinematics and kinetics were apparent between male and female subjects. Recreational athletes exhibited different knee kinematics and kinetics in the four athletic motions, particularly in the sagittal and frontal planes. Male and female subjects demonstrated similar knee motions during the four athletic activities.

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P.R. Rougier, S. Berger, S. Barral and O. Rachet

To assess the postural strategies developed over the first 2 months following surgery by ACL patients during rehabilitation and highlight the sensory-motor impairment recovery, 21 patients were measured at three timeframes. Three two-legged standing conditions were assessed: with the eyes open, with the eyes closed either wearing or not wearing a knee orthosis. The results indicate that the weight-bearing asymmetry, initially observed (i.e., 56–44% of body-weight), disappeared progressively during rehabilitation (51–49%). The comparison of the plantar center-of-pressure displacements under both sound and operated legs demonstrated noticeable differences that also tended to decrease but without reaching a matched behavior during the last measures. These effects were seen in both eyes open and eyes closed conditions with the greatest effects in the latter condition. Wearing a knee orthosis inferred no particular changes in the postural control behaviors. These data could be used as benchmarks for highlighting the effects on undisturbed postural control of various surgery techniques and/or rehabilitation protocols.

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Moataz Eltoukhy, Christopher Kuenze, Jeonghoon Oh, Eryn Apanovitch, Lauren Butler and Joseph F. Signorile

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is one of the most common knee injuries among athletes, 1 , 2 with approximately 250,000 injuries every year in the United States. About 80,000 of these injuries occur in athletes younger than 18 years old. 3 About 70% of ACL injuries occur via noncontact