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Robert D. Catena, Nigel Campbell, Alexa L. Werner and Kendall M. Iverson

changes experienced in the later part of the second trimester, but plateauing, and even in some cases trending toward improvement before birth. 6 The goals of this current research were to determine how body anthropometry changes during pregnancy and to determine the relationship between anthropometric

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Zachary Merrill, Grace Bova, April Chambers and Rakié Cham

specific segmentation method used, and these differences are challenging to control for as they depend on obesity, gender, and perhaps other body shapes. Although previous work has shown differences in anthropometry due to gender and obesity, 16 as well as differences between parameter calculation methods

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Herman van Werkhoven and Stephen J. Piazza

results of previous research. Similar methods have been employed by others. 13 , 21 It is important to note that our correlational findings of relationships between foot anthropometry and oxygen consumption does not necessarily imply the existence of mechanisms linking the two. More detailed studies

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Francesco Campa, Alessandro Piras, Milena Raffi and Stefania Toselli

. Anthropometry and functional movement patterns in elite male volleyball players of different competitive levels . J Strength Cond Res . 2018 ; 32 ( 9 ): 2601 – 2611 . doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002368 30137032 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002368 14. Lohman TG , Roche AF , Martorell R . Anthropometric

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Danielle L. Gyemi, Charles Kahelin, Nicole C. George and David M. Andrews

, Altena TS , Swan PD . Comparison of anthropometry to DXA: a new prediction equation for men . Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 ; 58 ( 11 ): 1525 – 1531 . PubMed doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602003 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602003 15162135 9. Bilsborough JC , Greenway K , Opar

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Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro and Frederico Ribeiro Neto

 al . Total body water and percentage fat mass measurements using bioelectrical impedance analysis and anthropometry in spinal cord-injured patients . Clin Nutr . 2000 ; 19 ( 3 ): 185 – 190 . PubMed ID: 10895109 doi: 10.1054/clnu.1999.0122 10895109 23. Abadie Ben R , Altorfer GL , Schuler PB

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April J. Chambers, Alison L. Sukits, Jean L. McCrory and Rakié Cham

Age, obesity, and gender can have a significant impact on the anthropometrics of adults aged 65 and older. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in body segment parameters derived using two methods: (1) a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) subject-specific method (Chambers et al., 2010) and (2) traditional regression models (de Leva, 1996). The impact of aging, gender, and obesity on the potential differences between these methods was examined. Eighty-three healthy older adults were recruited for participation. Participants underwent a whole-body DXA scan (Hologic QDR 1000/W). Mass, length, center of mass, and radius of gyration were determined for each segment. In addition, traditional regressions were used to estimate these parameters (de Leva, 1996). A mixed linear regression model was performed (α = 0.05). Method type was significant in every variable of interest except forearm segment mass. The obesity and gender differences that we observed translate into differences associated with using traditional regressions to predict anthropometric variables in an aging population. Our data point to a need to consider age, obesity, and gender when utilizing anthropometric data sets and to develop regression models that accurately predict body segment parameters in the geriatric population, considering gender and obesity.

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Alessandra Paiva de Castro, José Rubens Rebelatto and Thaís Rabiatti Aurichio

Context:

Some questions remain regarding the anthropometric differences between the feet of young men and women, but the gap is much greater when dealing with older adults. No studies were found concerning these differences in an exclusively older adult population, which makes it difficult to manufacture shoes based on the specific anthropometric measurements of the older adult population and according to gender differences.

Objective:

To identify differences between the anthropometric foot variables of older men and women.

Design:

Cross-sectional.

Participants:

154 older women (69.0 ± 6.8 y) and 131 older men (69.0 ± 6.5 y).

Main Outcome Measures:

The foot evaluations comprised the variables of width, perimeter, height, length, 1st and 5th metatarsophalangeal angles, the Arch Index (AI), and the Foot Posture Index (FPI). A data analysis was performed using t test and a post hoc power analysis.

Results:

Women showed significantly higher values for the width and perimeter of the toes, width of the metatarsal heads, and width of the heel and presented significantly lower values for the height of the dorsal foot after normalization of the data to foot length. The 1st and 5 th metatarsophalangeal angles were smaller in the men. There were no differences between men and women with respect to AI and FPI.

Conclusions:

Overall, the current study shows evidence of differences between some of the anthropometric foot variables of older men and women that must be taken into account for the manufacture of shoes for older adults.

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Alessandra Paiva de Castro, José Rubens Rebelatto and Thaís Rabiatti Aurichio

Context:

Wearing inappropriate shoes can cause biomechanical imbalance, foot problems, and pain and induce falls.

Objective:

To verify the prevalence of wearing incorrectly sized shoes and the relationship between incorrectly sized shoes and foot dimensions, pain, and diabetes among older adults.

Design:

A cross-sectional study.

Participants:

399 older adults (227 women and 172 men) age 60 to 90 y.

Main Outcome Measures:

The participants were asked about the presence of diabetes, pain in the lower limbs and back, and pain when wearing shoes. Foot evaluations comprised the variables of width, perimeter, height, length, first metatarsophalangeal angle, the Arch Index, and the Foot Posture Index. The data analysis was performed using a 2-sample t test and chi-square test.

Results:

The percentage of the participants wearing shoe sizes bigger than their foot length was 48.5% for the women and 69.2% for the men. Only 1 man was wearing a shoe size smaller than his foot length. The older adults wearing the incorrect shoe size presented larger values for foot width, perimeter, and height than those wearing the correct size, but there were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the Arch Index and the Foot Posture Index. Incorrectly sized shoes were associated with ankle pain in women but not with diabetes. Men were more likely to wear incorrectly fitting shoes. The use of correctly sized shoes was associated with back pain in women.

Conclusions:

The use of incorrectly sized shoes was highly prevalent in the population studied and was associated with larger values for foot width, perimeter, and height and with ankle pain.

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Pedro Figueiredo, Ana Silva, António Sampaio, João Paulo Vilas-Boas and Ricardo J. Fernandes

The aim of this study was to evaluate the determinants of front crawl sprint performance of young swimmers using a cluster analysis. 103 swimmers, aged 11- to 13-years old, performed 25-m front crawl swimming at 50-m pace, recorded by two underwater cameras. Swimmers analysis included biomechanics, energetics, coordinative, and anthropometric characteristics. The organization of subjects in meaningful clusters, originated three groups (1.52 ± 0.16, 1.47 ± 0.17 and 1.40 ± 0.15 m/s, for Clusters 1, 2 and 3, respectively) with differences in velocity between Cluster 1 and 2 compared with Cluster 3 (p = .003). Anthropometric variables were the most determinants for clusters solution. Stroke length and stroke index were also considered relevant. In addition, differences between Cluster 1 and the others were also found for critical velocity, stroke rate and intracycle velocity variation (p < .05). It can be concluded that anthropometrics, technique and energetics (swimming efficiency) are determinant domains to young swimmers sprint performance.