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Adam J. Zemski, Shelley E. Keating, Elizabeth M. Broad and Gary J. Slater

not previously been explored. Anthropometry is the scientific procedure of acquiring surface anatomical dimensional measurements, including skinfolds, and is an easily accessible, inexpensive, mobile, and robust method of body composition assessment used in rugby union ( Ackland et al., 2012 ; Duthie

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Adam J. Zemski, Elizabeth M. Broad and Gary J. Slater

body composition are surface anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) ( Ackland et al., 2012 ; Zemski et al., 2015 ). Surface anthropometry, which includes the indirect assessment of subcutaneous fat, is an easily accessible, inexpensive, mobile, and robust method of assessment. The

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Andrew A. Dingley, David B. Pyne and Brendan Burkett

Purpose:

To characterize relationships between propulsion, anthropometry, and performance in Paralympic swimming.

Methods:

A cross-sectional study of swimmers (13 male, 15 female) age 20.5 ± 4.4 y was conducted. Subject locomotor categorizations were no physical disability (n = 8, classes S13–S14) and low-severity (n = 11, classes S9–S10) or midseverity disability (n = 9, classes S6–S8). Full anthropometric profiles estimated muscle mass and body fat, a bilateral swim-bench ergometer quantified upper-body power production, and 100-m time trials quantified swimming performance.

Results:

Correlations between ergometer mean power and swimming performance increased with degree of physical disability (low-severity male r = .65, ±0.56, and female r = .68, ±0.64; midseverity, r = .87, ±0.41, and r = .79, ±0.75). The female midseverity group showed nearperfect (positive) relationships for taller swimmers’ (with a greater muscle mass and longer arm span) swimming faster, while for female no- and low-severity-disability groups, greater muscle mass was associated with slower velocity (r = .78, ±0.43, and r = .65, ±0.66). This was supported with lighter females (with less frontal surface area) in the low-severity group being faster (r = .94, ±0.24). In a gender contrast, low-severity males with less muscle mass (r = -.64, ±0.56), high skinfolds (r = .78, ±0.43), a longer arm span (r = .58, ±0.60) or smaller frontal surface area (r = -.93, ±0.19) were detrimental to swimming-velocity production.

Conclusion:

Low-severity male and midseverity female Paralympic swimmers should be encouraged to develop muscle mass and upper-body power to enhance swimming performance. The generalized anthropometric measures appear to be a secondary consideration for coaches.

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Paulo V. Mezzaroba and Fabiana A. Machado

This study aimed to determine the influence of age, anthropometry, and distance on stroke parameters of 10- to 17-y-old swimmers. Forty-six male swimmers were divided into 4 chronological age groups. Anthropometry and sexual maturity were assessed, and maximal efforts of 100, 200, and 400 m using front-crawl style were performed to determine stroke rate (SR), length (SL), and index (SI). Multiple linear regression, 1-way, and mixed ANOVA for repeated measures were used for statistical analyses. There was significant effect of distance for all stroke parameters (P < .001) and an age effect only for SL and SI (P < .001). Post hoc showed that the 10- to 17-year-old group significantly reduced SR with increasing distance (effect size –0.8 to –1.5 comparing 100, 200, and 400 m) but were not effective in offsetting this adaptation with increased SL, especially from 200- to 400-m distance, at which no group made both adjustments, highlighting the decreased efficiency with significant SI reduction (effect size –0.2 to –0.4 comparing 100, 200, and 400 m). Considering all stroke parameters, the performances were almost 100% explained, but SI itself could explain around 90% of the performance; furthermore, limb length contributed to explain all stroke parameter, and SI was the variable best predicted (around 75%) by anthropometrical (upper limbs and height) and descriptive variables (age and y of systematic training).Thus, distinct effects of distance and advancing age were found during childhood and adolescence on stroke parameters, and SI was highlighted as the best predictor of 100-, 200-, and 400-m maximal performances.

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Johann C. Bilsborough, Kate Greenway, Steuart Livingston, Justin Cordy and Aaron J. Coutts

The purpose of this study was to examine the seasonal changes in body composition, nutrition, and upper-body (UB) strength in professional Australian Football (AF) players. The prospective longitudinal study examined changes in anthropometry (body mass, fat-free soft-tissue mass [FFSTM], and fat mass) via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry 5 times during an AF season (start preseason, midpreseason, start season, midseason, end season) in 45 professional AF players. Dietary intakes and strength (bench press and bench pull) were also assessed at these time points. Players were categorized as experienced (>4 y experience, n = 23) or inexperienced (<4 y experience, n = 22). Fat mass decreased during the preseason but was stable through the in-season for both groups. %FFSTM was increased during the preseason and remained constant thereafter. UB strength increased during the preseason and was maintained during the in-season. Changes in UB FFSTM were related to changes in UB-strength performance (r = .37−.40). Total energy and carbohydrate intakes were similar between the experienced and inexperienced players during the season, but there was a greater ratio of dietary fat intake at the start-preseason point and an increased alcohol, reduced protein, and increased total energy intake at the end of the season. The inexperienced players consumed more fat at the start of season and less total protein during the season than the experienced players. Coaches should also be aware that it can take >1 y to develop the appropriate levels of FFSTM in young players and take a long-term view when developing the physical and performance abilities of inexperienced players.

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Trent W. Lawton, John B. Cronin and Michael R. McGuigan

Purpose:

There is no common theory on criteria to appropriately select crew rowers in pursuit of small performance gains. The purpose of this study was to establish whether anthropometry, rowing ergometry, or lower body strength were suitable criteria to identify differences between selected and nonselected sculling crews.

Method:

Twelve elite women performed a 2000-m ergometer time trial and a 5-repetition leg-press dynamometer test, were anthropometrically profiled, and participated in on-water national crew seat-racing trials. Log-transformed data were analyzed to compare percent (± SD) and standardized differences in group means (ES; ±90% confidence interval [CI]) between selected and nonselected oarswomen, with adjustments for body mass where appropriate.

Results:

Selected crew boats were 4.60% ± 0.02% faster and won by an average margin of 13.5 ± 0.7 s over 1500 m. There were no differences between crews on average in height, arm span, seated height, body mass, or 8-site skinfold sum (body fat). Difference in 2000-m ergometer times were also trivial (ES = 0.2, 90%CI = −0.6 to 1.1, P = .63); however, selected crews had moderately greater leg-press strength (ES = 1.1, 90%CI = 0.3−1.9, P = .03).

Conclusion:

Selected oarswomen with comparable anthropometry and 2000-m ergometer ability had greater lower body strength. Coaches of elite oarswomen might consider leg strength as part of crew-selection criteria, given acceptable on-water boatmanship and attainment of 2000-m ergometer benchmarks.

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Eric C. Haakonssen, David T. Martin, Louise M. Burke and David G. Jenkins

Body composition in a female road cyclist was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (5 occasions) and anthropometry (10 occasions) at the start of the season (Dec to Mar), during a period of chronic fatigue associated with poor weight management (Jun to Aug), and in the following months of recovery and retraining (Aug to Nov). Dietary manipulation involved a modest reduction in energy availability to 30–40 kcal · kg fat-free mass−1 · d−1 and an increased intake of high-quality protein, particularly after training (20 g). Through the retraining period, total body mass decreased (−2.82 kg), lean mass increased (+0.88 kg), and fat mass decreased (−3.47 kg). Hemoglobin mass increased by 58.7 g (8.4%). Maximal aerobic- and anaerobic-power outputs were returned to within 2% of preseason values. The presented case shows that through a subtle energy restriction associated with increased protein intake and sufficient energy intake during training, fat mass can be reduced with simultaneous increases in lean mass, performance gains, and improved health.

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Gabriel Lozano-Berges, Ángel Matute-Llorente, Alejandro Gómez-Bruton, Alejandro González-Agüero, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez and José A. Casajús

The assessment of percentage of body fat (%BF) is often performed in sport clubs to monitor body composition changes in the athletes during the season due to its relationship with physical fitness and performance ( Avlonitou et al., 1997 ). Anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance analysis, dual

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J. Paul Fawcett, Stephen J. Farquhar, Robert J. Walker, Thearoth Thou, Graham Lowe and Ailsa Goulding

The effects of oral vanadyl sulfáte (VOSO4) (0.5 mg/kg/day) on anthropometry, body composition, and Performance were investigated in a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving weight-training volunteers. Performance was assessed in the treatment (VS) and placebo (P) groups using 1 and 10 repetitions maximum (RM) for the bench press and leg extension. Thirty-one subjects completed the trial, with 2 VS subjects withdrawing because of apparent side effects. There were no significant treatment effects for anthropo-metric parameters and body composition during the trial. Both groups had significant improvements in performance but the only significant effect of treatment was a Treatment × Time interaction in the 1 RM leg extension (p=.002), which could have arisen because the VS group had a lower performance at baseline in this test. It was concluded that oral vanadyl sulfáte was ineffective in changing body composition in weight-training athletes, and any modest performance-enhancing effect requires further investigation.

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Vivian H. Heyward

This paper provides an overview of practical methods for assessing body composition of children, adults, and older adults. Three methods commonly used in field and clinical settings are skinfolds, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and anthropometry. For each method, standardized testing procedures, sources of measurement error, recommendations for technicians, and selected prediction equations for each age category are presented. The skinfold method is appropriate for estimating body fat of children (6–17 years) and body density of adults (18–60 years) from diverse ethnic groups. Likewise, bioimpedance is well suited tor estimating the fat-free mass of children (10-19 years) as well as American Indian, black, Hispanic, and white adults. Anthropometric prediction equations that use a combination of circumferences and bony diameters are recommended for older adults (up to 79 years of age), as well as obese men and women.