This study examined the relationship between felt arousal, thoughts/feelings, and ski performance based on recent arousal and affect conceptualizations. An eclectic integration of these perspectives suggests that to understand the arousal-performance relationship, researchers need to examine not only a felt arousal continuum (i.e., intensity or level ranging from low to high), but also a concomitant thoughts and feelings continuum (i.e., ranging from positive to negative). Recreational slalom ski racers completed a self-report measure examining felt arousal and thoughts/feelings prior to several ski runs. Results demonstrated a significant relationship between felt arousal level, thoughts/feelings, and subjective ski performance ratings, but not for actual ski times. In contrast to the inverted-U hypothesis for subjective performance ratings, high felt arousal is not associated with poor performance ratings if it is accompanied by positive thoughts and feelings.
Thomas D. Raedeke and Gary L. Stein
Vicki Ebbeck and Maureen R. Weiss
Two issues regarding the arousal-performance relationship in sport were addressed in this study: the relationship between task complexity, optimal arousal, and maximal performance, and the appropriateness of using various measures of performance. Data were collected from high school athletes (n=51) across four track and field meets. State anxiety was obtained prior to each performance and three performance measures were obtained (event results, and quality of performance evaluated by the athlete and by the coach). Results indicated that the three performance measures were not equally related to A-state, suggesting that the relationship between arousal and performance results in a different description depending upon the performance measure that is used. Furthermore, degree of task complexity could not be distinguished across various track and field events. When individual events were used to examine the arousal-performance/task complexity relationship, results revealed that level of A-state needed for maximal performance could not be differentiated for specific events, nor could it be determined for above average, average, or below average performances on any one event.
Robert M. Nideffer
Terri Graham-Paulson, Claudio Perret and Victoria Goosey-Tolfrey
Arousal scale (a measure of perceived arousal; Svebak & Murgatroyd, 1985 ) during Visit 1. Presentation of Intervention The athlete visited the laboratory on five separate occasions. Previous evidence has suggested that individuals with paraplegia can display variable appearance rates following CAF
Ben M. Krings, Brandon D. Shepherd, Hunter S. Waldman, Matthew J. McAllister and JohnEric W. Smith
felt arousal [FA]. It was hypothesized that CMR would increase RE training session volume in resistance-trained males. Methods Design The current investigation employed a randomized, counter-balanced, and double-blinded design, with the participants completing a total of five sessions. During Session 1
Britton W. Brewer, Adisa Haznadar, Dylan Katz, Judy L. Van Raalte and Albert J. Petitpas
beneficial to sport performance, such as concentrating, feeling confident, feeling motivated, feeling prepared, experiencing optimal physiological arousal (e.g., calm, energized), and thinking constructively ( Baker & Horton, 2004 ; Birrer & Morgan, 2010 ; Eklund, 1994 ; Fletcher & Hanton, 2001 ; Gould
Laura E. Juliff, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Shona L. Halson
regions of the brain through modulations of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that control daily cycles of wakefulness and sleep. 7 The ascending arousal system in the hypothalamus and sleep-active neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus interact much like a “flip-flop switch,” turning on and off
Irene Muir, Krista J. Munroe-Chandler and Todd Loughead
Mental skills have been widely used in the motor domain as strategies to initiate and sustain performance ( Krane & Williams, 2006 ). In dance, mental skills have been employed as a means to control arousal and concentration and improve self-confidence and self-talk ( Fish, Hall, & Cumming, 2004
Sarah Kölling, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Ranel Venter and Shona L. Halson
, with increasing arousal thresholds from stage N1 (light sleep) to N3 (deep sleep). In the course of the night, NREM and REM sleep alternate in cyclic fashion, with higher proportions of NREM in the first third of the night and expanding REM episodes throughout the night. 7 The measurement and
Daniel T. Bishop, Costas I. Karageorghis and Noel P. Kinrade
The main objective of the current study was to examine the impact of musically induced emotions on athletes’ subsequent choice reaction time (CRT) performance. A random sample of 54 tennis players listened to researcher-selected music whose tempo and intensity were modified to yield six different music excerpts (three tempi × two intensities) before completing a CRT task. Affective responses, heart rate (HR), and RTs for each condition were contrasted with white noise and silence conditions. As predicted, faster music tempi elicited more pleasant and aroused emotional states; and higher music intensity yielded both higher arousal (p < .001) and faster subsequent CRT performance (p < .001). White noise was judged significantly less pleasant than all experimental conditions (p < .001); and silence was significantly less arousing than all but one experimental condition (p < .001). The implications for athletes’ use of music as part of a preevent routine when preparing for reactive tasks are discussed.