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Chris G. Harwood and Sam N. Thrower

arousal) across different tasks, levels, and stages of development in the context of youth sport. Self-Talk A number of studies have explored the impact of self-talk interventions on young athletes’ performance (e.g.,  Hatzigeorgiadis et al., 2008 , 2009 ; Hatzigeorgiadis, Galanis, Zourbanos

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Maureen R. Weiss

gave for participating in sports. They consolidated reasons into motives of affiliation (e.g., making friends), excellence (e.g., doing something well), arousal (e.g., it’s exciting), and esteem (e.g., approval from others). What followed was a flurry of similar descriptive studies in the 1980s, using

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Jeffrey J. Martin

and pride seem to be less of a fit while still being desirable positive affective states. When viewed through the circumplex model of emotion ( Russell, 1980 ), fun can be viewed as falling within the high-valence and high-arousal quadrant, whereas contentment can be conceptualized as high valence and

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Bradley D. Hatfield

-demanding, and effortful mode with overall increased cortical arousal, and engagement of elevated cortico-cortical communication between sensory, associative, and motor processes. In contrast, the expert approaches a task on which he or she is highly practiced and performs with automaticity and efficient

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A. Mark Williams and Bradley Fawver

:10.1123/kr.2016-0005 10.1123/kr.2016-0005 Vickers , J.N. , & Williams , A.M. ( 2007 ). Performing under pressure: The effects of physiological arousal, cognitive anxiety, and gaze control in biathlon . Journal of Motor Behavior, 39 ( 5 ), 381 – 394 . PubMed doi:10.3200/JMBR.39.5.381-394 10

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Mark Dyreson

achievement,” ethnically homogeneous Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, Denmark, Finland, Holland, and Estonia topped the charts. Multiethnic nations such as the United States lagged far behind, and non-Western cultures such as India ranked at the bottom of the heap. 23 Snyder’s work aroused controversy, and a few