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Anne Beuter and Joan L. Duda

The purpose of this interdisciplinary study was to assess the impact of arousal on motor performance by examining the kinematic characteristics of a stepping motion in high and low arousal conditions on 9 subjects. Raw data were recorded from a rotary shutter video camera and digitized automatically by interfacing the videomotion analyzer with the digitizing board of a microcomputer. Three-dimensional orbital plots of the hip, knee, and ankle angle covariations revealed that the subjects used two different strategies to perform the skill. Phase plane analyses revealed a tight coupling between joint position and velocity in both conditions for the hip and the knee. Differences in movement kinematics between low and high arousal conditions were most visible in the ankle joint whose phase planes displayed an increased number of self-crossings (loops) in the high arousal condition. It was suggested that under high arousal, what was once automatic and smooth in terms of the ankle joint now comes under more volitional control, which is less smooth and efficient. Practical implications of the present study are suggested.

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Kamuran Yerlikaya Balyan, Serdar Tok, Arkun Tatar, Erdal Binboga and Melih Balyan

The present study examined the association between personality, competitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and physiological arousal in athletes with high and low anxiety levels. Anxiety was manipulated by means of an incentive. Fifty male participants, first, completed the Five Factor Personality Inventory and their resting electro dermal activity (EDA) was recorded. In the second stage, participants were randomly assigned to high or low anxiety groups. Individual EDAs were recorded again to determine precompetition physiological arousal. Participants also completed the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) and played a computer-simulated soccer match. Results showed that neuroticism was related to both CSAI-2 components and physiological arousal only in the group receiving the incentive. Winners had higher levels of cognitive anxiety and lower levels of physiological arousal than losers. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that an athlete’s neurotic personality may influence his cognitive and physiological responses in a competition.

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James G. Hollandsworth Jr and Gary E. Jones

This study was designed to investigate runners' perceptions of arousal and awareness of physiological responding before and after a 20-kilometer (12.4- mile) race. Participants (N = 98) completed pre- and postquestionnaires that included measures of awareness of physiological responding and self-defined states of activation and arousal. In order to identify those variables related to performance, the finishers were divided into three groups: fast, moderate, and slow. A discriminant analysis revealed that miles run in training each week, resting pulse rate, and weight were the best predictors of group membership. Of the several psychological variables, only prerace tension discriminated between the groups, with the faster runners reporting themselves as more fearful and “clutched-up” before the race. In terms of pre-post physiological and psychological effects, it was found that running 20 kilometers resulted in a significant, increased awareness of physiological responding, increased feelings of being tired and relaxed, and decreased feelings of tension and energy. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for future research.

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Panteleimon Ekkekakis, Eric E. Hall and Steven J. Petruzzello

Individuals differ in the intensity of exercise they prefer and the intensity they can tolerate. The purpose of this project was to develop a measure of individual differences in the preference for and tolerance of exercise intensity. The steps involved in (a) item generation and face validation, (b) exploratory factor analysis and item selection, (c) structural validation, (d) examination of the internal consistency and test-retest reliability, (e) concurrent validation, and (f) construct validation are described. The Preference for and Tolerance of the Intensity of Exercise Questionnaire (PRETIE-Q) is a 16-item, 2-factor measure that exhibits acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in research aimed at understanding individual differences in responses to exercise and thus the psychological processes involved in the public health problem of exercise dropout.

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John H. Kerr, Cecilia K. F. Au and Koenraad J. Lindner

As part of a sport and exercise participation questionnaire, samples of Hong Kong high school students (n = 1,496) and high school students entering university (n = 862) completed the Motivational Style Profile (MSP; 4). In addition, 1,493 high school and 848 university entrants completed the MSP-SE, a sport and exercise version of the MSP. Students also completed six extra items related to general life motivational orientations (LMOs) and one other item relating to the frequency of their sport and exercise participation. Based on their answers to this latter item, students were divided into inactive, active, and very active groups and their metamotivational profiles tested for differences. MANOVA techniques produced several significant differences among activity groups in metamotivational dominance and state balance dimensions. The results are presented, and then they are discussed in terms of their implications for sport and exercise provision in high school, university, and more general contexts.

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Terri Graham-Paulson, Claudio Perret and Victoria Goosey-Tolfrey

Arousal scale (a measure of perceived arousal; Svebak & Murgatroyd, 1985 ) during Visit 1. Presentation of Intervention The athlete visited the laboratory on five separate occasions. Previous evidence has suggested that individuals with paraplegia can display variable appearance rates following CAF

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Ben M. Krings, Brandon D. Shepherd, Hunter S. Waldman, Matthew J. McAllister and JohnEric W. Smith

felt arousal [FA]. It was hypothesized that CMR would increase RE training session volume in resistance-trained males. Methods Design The current investigation employed a randomized, counter-balanced, and double-blinded design, with the participants completing a total of five sessions. During Session 1

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Stacey Alvarez-Alvarado, Graig M. Chow, Nicole T. Gabana, Robert C. Hickner and Gershon Tenenbaum

) linear increase in RPE until volitional exhaustion, and (d) increase in perceived arousal until volitional exhaustion. Method Participants An a priori power analysis was undertaken using the G*Power 3 program ( Faul, Erdfelder, Lang, & Buchner, 2007 ) to establish appropriate sample size. Effect size f ( v ) = 0

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Thomas Finkenzeller, Sabine Würth, Michael Doppelmayr and Günter Amesberger

alternating low to moderate physical load would lead to a fluctuating decrease of reaction time induced through the changing level of physiological arousal during exercise and would maintain the level of the last interference measurement during exercise in the following postexercise blocks. Based on the

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Laura E. Juliff, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Shona L. Halson

regions of the brain through modulations of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that control daily cycles of wakefulness and sleep. 7 The ascending arousal system in the hypothalamus and sleep-active neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus interact much like a “flip-flop switch,” turning on and off