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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens and Edson Filho

). Despite these similarities, the sport industry can be considered different to the performance arts industry. Specifically, success in sports is linked to achieving performance perfection in front of a jury or winning a game, whereas in contemporary circus building a connection with the audience is key to

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Linda Levy, Ashley E. Schmidt and Bradford Emerton

Edited by Christine Lauber

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Shana Harrington, Corinne Meisel and Angela Tate


The prevalence of shoulder pain in the competitive swimming population has been reported to be as high as 91%. Female collegiate swimmers have a reported shoulder-injury rate 3 times greater than their male counterparts. There has been little information on how to best prevent shoulder pain in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine if differences exist in shoulder range of motion, upper-extremity strength, core endurance, and pectoralis minor length in NCAA Division I female swimmers with and without shoulder pain and disability.


NCAA Division I females (N = 37) currently swimming completed a brief survey that included the pain subscale of the Penn Shoulder Score (PSS) and the sports/performing arts module of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Outcome Measure. Passive range of motion for shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) at 90° abduction was measured using a digital inclinometer. Strength was measured using a handheld dynamometer for scapular depression and adduction, scapular adduction, IR, and ER. Core endurance was assessed using the side-bridge and prone-bridge tests. Pectoralis minor muscle length was assessed in both a resting and a stretched position using the PALM palpation meter. All measures were taken on the dominant and nondominant arms.


Participants were classified as positive for pain and disability if the following 2 criteria were met: The DASH sports module score was >6/20 points and the PSS strenuous pain score was ≥4/10. If these criteria were not met, participants were classified as negative for pain and disability. Significant differences were found between the 2 groups on the dominant side for pectoralis muscle length at rest (P = .003) and stretch (P = .029).


The results provide preliminary evidence regarding an association between a decrease in pectoralis minor length and shoulder pain and disability in Division I female swimmers.

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Emmanuel Jacobs, Ann Hallemans, Jan Gielen, Luc Van den Dries, Annouk Van Moorsel, Jonas Rutgeerts and Nathalie A. Roussel

Beside sports, human movement analyses gained popularity in the field of arts, such as dance. Insight into dancers’ movement patterns and into the complexity of dance performances has improved by examining dancers in fully equipped motion analysis laboratories ( Koutedakis, Owolabi, & Apostolos

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Sajad Bagherian, Khodayar Ghasempoor, Nader Rahnama and Erik A. Wikstrom

, volleyball = 12, and martial arts = 8) were defined as students who participated in intercollege sports, were currently in their off-season, and were training at least 3 times per week (>1.5 h/wk). All participants were currently free from any kind of musculoskeletal injury, had not sustained any kind of

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Eoin Everard, Mark Lyons and Andrew J. Harrison

whether the LESS is a reliable screen to use in the rehabilitation setting. Methods Participants A total of 30 male participants (age = 21.8 [3.9] y; height = 1.75 [0.46] m; mass = 75.5 [6.6] kg) involved in a variety of college sports (Gaelic games, n = 10; soccer, n = 6; boxing/mixed martial arts, n = 2

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Senia Smoot Reinert, Allison L. Kinney, Kurt Jackson, Wiebke Diestelkamp and Kimberly Bigelow

20503805 10.2190/AG.70.3.b 15. McGuire FA , Norman WC , O’Leary JT . Constraints to participation in the arts by the young old, old, and oldest old . Adv Hospit Leisure . 2004 ; 1 : 43 – 58 . doi:10.1016/S1745-3542(04)01003-3 10.1016/S1745

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Aaron Sciascia, Jacob Waldecker and Cale Jacobs

pain reporting the rating to be between 1 and 6 on the Numeric Pain Rating Scale. Previous work has shown that combat athletes (martial arts and wrestling participants) have a tendency to participate in team activities with existing pain and seem to be able to do so using various coping strategies. 47

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David Cruz-Díaz, Kyung-Min Kim, Fidel Hita-Contreras, Marco Bergamin, Agustin Aibar-Almazán and Antonio Martínez-Amat

as an effective and easy to apply intervention in the management of patients affected with CAI, with the additional benefit of the possibility of group class performance. Acknowledgments The authors thank the Dharma Institute of Martial Arts and Oriental Studies for its support during the Tai Chi

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Francesco Campa, Alessandro Piras, Milena Raffi and Stefania Toselli

intervention program on functional movement screen test scores in mixed martial arts athletes . J Strength Cond Res . 2015 ; 29 ( 1 ): 219 – 225 . PubMed ID: 23860293 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182a480bf 23860293 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182a480bf 21. Kerr ZY , Marshall SW , Dompier TP , Corlette J