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Ross C. Brownson, Diana C. Parra, Marsela Dauti, Jenine K. Harris, Pedro C. Hallal, Christine Hoehner, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Rodrigo S. Reis, Luiz Roberto Ramos, Isabela C. Ribeiro, Jesus Soares and Michael Pratt


Physical inactivity is a significant public health problem in Brazil that may be addressed by partnerships and networks. In conjunction with Project GUIA (Guide for Useful Interventions for Physical Activity in Brazil and Latin America), the aim of this study was to conduct a social network analysis of physical activity in Brazil.


An online survey was completed by 28 of 35 organizations contacted from December 2008 through March 2009. Network analytic methods examined measures of collaboration, importance, leadership, and attributes of the respondent and organization.


Leadership nominations for organizations studied ranged from 0 to 23. Positive predictors of collaboration included: south region, GUIA membership, years working in physical activity, and research, education, and promotion/practice areas of physical activity. The most frequently reported barrier to collaboration was bureaucracy.


Social network analysis identified factors that are likely to improve collaboration among organizations in Brazil.

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Sarah Edney, Tim Olds, Jillian Ryan, Ronald Plotnikoff, Corneel Vandelanotte, Rachel Curtis and Carol Maher

, participants were required to assemble into a team of minimum 3 to maximum 8 Facebook friends who also met the eligibility criteria and who were willing to join the study. The first participant from each team to join the study was designated as the “captain” of the team, and this captain was primarily

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Lynda B. Ransdell, Sarah Toevs, Jennifer White, Shelley Lucas, Jean L. Perry, Onie Grosshans, Diane Boothe and Sona Andrews

In higher education in the United States, women are often underrepresented in leadership positions. When women try administration, they face a higher rate of attrition than their male counterparts. Given the lack of women in leadership positions and the failure of the academy to retain women administrators, a group of women administrators and faculty with many collective years of experience in higher education assembled to write this paper. Our writing group consisted of 2 Chairs, 2 Deans, 1 Associate Dean, 2 pre-tenure faculty members, and a Provost, representing four different institutions. The authors of this paper suggest that applying the proposed model of transformational leadership within the field of Kinesiology may have a two-fold benefit. It may increase the number of women in administrative positions and it may extend how long women choose to serve in an administrative capacity. Components of the model include developing personal and professional characteristics that motivate faculty to perform beyond expectations, and understanding gender-related and kinesiology-specific challenges of administration. In addition, recommendations are made for pursuing careers in administration, and for pursuing future research projects. We hope that through this paper, we have started an important and open discussion about women in leadership roles, and ultimately, encouraged some prospective leaders to consider a career in higher education administration.

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Julien Louis, Fabrice Vercruyssen, Olivier Dupuy and Thierry Bernard

Master athletes are often considered exemplars of successful aging, thanks to their capacity to maintain a high sports performance during their entire life. A high training capacity, regular participation in sporting competitions, and delayed alterations in body composition and physiological capacities have been listed among the main factors contributing to impressive master athletes’ performances. However, there is a paucity of data on the metabolism and dietary habits of master athletes, and the question of whether they need to adapt their nutrition to the aging process remains open. Herein, the authors presented a contemporary overview of the metabolic challenges associated with aging, including the risk of low energy availability, anabolic resistance, and periods of metabolic crisis due to forced immobilization. After assembling scientific evidence to show that master athletes must adapt their dietary intake, the authors proposed a summary of nutritional recommendations for master athletes and suggested the next stage of research.

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Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Kara D. Denstel, Kim Beals, Jordan Carlson, Scott E. Crouter, Thomas L. McKenzie, Russell R. Pate, Susan B. Sisson, Amanda E. Staiano, Heidi Stanish, Dianne S. Ward, Melicia Whitt-Glover and Carly Wright

Advisory Committee was assembled under the auspices of the National Physical Activity Plan Alliance ( The Committee reviewed the evidence and assigned grades to 10 indicators using data from nationally representative studies and surveys. The indicators included: 1) overall

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Population-Based Sample in Recife, Brazil Jesus Soares * Eduardo J. Simões * Luiz Roberto Ramos * Michael Pratt * Ross C. Brownson * 1 2010 7 s2 S229 S241 10.1123/jpah.7.s2.s229 Assembling the Puzzle for Promoting Physical Activity in Brazil: A Social Network Analysis Ross C. Brownson * Diana C

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Laura Cousens

Sport franchises are challenged to operate within the fast-changing environment of the professional sport industry. The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the extent to which these organizations are changing and to understand why some organizations have embraced the competitive strategies and institutional beliefs of their contemporary environment, while others have remained relatively unchanged. The concept of archetypes was used to create two templates for professional sport franchises: The sport-centered archetype and the business-centered archetype. Data were then collected from interviews with representatives of five AAA baseball franchises, documents were retained from the league's public relations firm and the franchises themselves, and information was assembled from newspapers and trade magazines. The results of the research indicated that one organization was in the sport-centered archetype, three were in the business-centered archetype, and one was between the two archetypes. It was found that a trigger for change and the ownership of the franchise impacted heavily on the ability of the franchises to adapt to their contemporary environment.

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P.A. Hancock

What I seek to achieve in this article is an exploration of how some of the distilled and assembled principles of behavior can be applied to human goals, aspirations, and performance writ large. I look to do this through an analysis of various areas of application, although the primary framework upon which I erect this discourse is my own autobiographical progress in science. My grounding in formal research was derived from motor learning and control and it then developed into an examination of all human interaction with technical systems under the general title human factors/ergonomics. In showing an indissoluble link between the foundations of motor control and the technological mediation of human factors and ergonomics, I hope to inform and inspire their consideration of the greater aspirations for all of kinesiological science. In terms of specifics, I discuss the work my laboratory has produced over a number of decades on issues such as driving, fight, and other human-augmenting technologies, with a special focus on performance under stress and high workload conditions. To conclude, I discuss, dispute, and finally dispense with the proposition that science and purpose (proximal understanding and ultimate meaning) can be dissociated. I hope to demonstrate why the foregoing principles and their ubiquitous application mean that science in general bears a heavy, if unacknowledged burden with respect to the current failings, especially of Western society.

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Julia Rudecki, Katie Weatherson and Guy Faulkner

environment. All participants were provided with 3 information sheets: (1) instructions on how to assemble the desk, (2) how to use the desk to break up sitting time, and (3) information about the health benefits of reducing sitting time. There was no control group in this study. The institutional research

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Judy L. Van Raalte, Lorraine Wilson, Allen Cornelius and Britton W. Brewer

the mask with the water level above the eyes and then clearing the mask, and removing the mask, waiting 1 minute, and replacing and clearing the mask On arrival for each pool training sessions, participants changed clothes, retrieved equipment from the SCUBA storage closet, assembled gear on deck, and