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Janice C. Wendt and Linda L. Bain

Physical educators’ perceptions of stressful teaching events do not change over a period of 1 to 5 years of teaching experience. Although there was a trend for priority and teaching function perceptions to be rated lower, no significant differences were found when using a MANOVA. Notification of unsatisfactory performance and being involuntarily transferred were rated the most stressful by both groups. Rated least stressful by both student and novice teachers was attendance at inservice meetings.

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Dimitrios C. Milosis, Athanasios G. Papaioannou, Theophanis A. Siatras, Miltiadis Proios and Michael Proios

The aims of the study were (a) to test the effectiveness of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict Greek university students’ voluntary participation in an extracurricular gymnastics course, and (b) to evaluate gender differences. Two hundred sixty-three (127 female, 136 male) students participated in the study. Students’ attitudes, intention, and PBC were measured with a questionnaire and their attendance in the course was recorded by the teacher. Results from the MANOVA conducted showed that females had higher scores compared with males in all observed variables. Results from the structural equation modeling (SEM) employed supported the usefulness of TPB to explain students’ attitudes and behavior toward extracurricular physical activities (PA). Differences also emerged on path structure of the relationships among the variables.

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Zoe Knowles, Jonathan Katz and David Gilbourne

This paper examines reflective practice by illustrating and commenting upon aspects of an elite sport psychology practitioner’s reflective processes. Extracts from a practitioner’s reflective diary, maintained during attendance at a major sporting event, focused upon issues that relate to on-going relationships and communication with fellow practitioners and athletes. Authors one and three offered subsequent comment on these accounts to facilitate movement toward critical reflection via an intrapersonal process creating considerations for the practitioners with regard to skills and personal development. These issues are discussed in relation to pragmatic topics such as “staged” and “layered” reflection encouraged by author collaboration and shared writing within the present paper. We argue these outcomes against more philosophical/opaque considerations such as the progression of critical reflection and critical social science.

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Krista Munroe, Paul Estabrooks, Paul Dennis and Albert Carron

This study aimed to identify group norms present in sport teams for practices, competition, social situations, and the off-season. Participants (n = 87 males, n = 53 females) were asked to list behaviors prescribed (i.e., expected) or proscribed (i.e., not appropriate) for each of the four situations. Results showed that a norm associated with productivity was the most frequently cited for competitions (16.3%), practice (22.3%), and the off-season (60.1%). Many of the other frequently cited norms indirectly reflected on productivity—punctuality (23.6 and 8.9% for practices and competitions, respectively), attendance (13.6 and 3.0%, respectively), and preparedness (3.3 and 7.1%, respectively). An overwhelming majority of the other norms cited were related to group maintenance (i.e., in the off-season, maintain contact, 8.7%; in social situations, attend functions. 16.5%; and respect teammates, 16.5%). Results are discussed in terms of their relevance to sport team dynamics.

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Tina J. Hall, Lori K. Hicklin and Karen E. French


To examine the relationship between the South Carolina middle school physical education assessment results and the school characteristics. In addition, the relationship between teacher training attendance and student achievement were determined.


Student performance on four physical education indicators in 63 middle schools (and 116 teachers) were reported to the South Carolina Physical Education Assessment Program. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between school characteristics as predictors of the performance indicator. ANOVAs were conducted to determine the relationship to teacher training and the performance indicators.


Statewide averages of student performance indicated that slightly over 50% of middle school students were rated as competent in all physical education indicators except health-related fitness (31.2%). The variability was high among all indicators. The correlations between the poverty index and the physical education indicators were significant and low. Teachers who attended data collection training sessions scored higher on all performance indicators, particularly health-related fitness knowledge. Teachers who attended professional development had significantly higher scores on motor skills, health-related fitness knowledge, and the overall weighted scores and approached significance on the health-related fitness performance.


This study suggests that teachers and the programs they deliver have a greater impact on student learning than do school characteristics. Teacher training and professional development is warranted. Most compelling is that the results of this study provide a strong argument against the practice of using student scores from other academic content areas to evaluate teacher effectiveness in physical education.

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Murray F. Mitchell

This study focused on the behavior of a proportional, stratified random sample of 40 physical education methods teacher educators (PEMTEs) in the state of Ohio, or more specifically, on the professional implications of their scholarly behaviors. The focal questions addressed were (a) how do PEMTEs meet their responsibility to stay current in their professional areas, and (b) what are the professional implications of these efforts? Four specific behaviors were examined as evidence of scholarly behaviors: (a) reading professional journals, (b) writing for publication, (c) attendance at professional conferences, and (d) active involvement in research. Findings were then contrasted to findings from previous studies of physical educators, education professors, and university professors. PEMTEs in Ohio tend to read the professional literature related to physical education without attending to the literature in the broader realm of education. Few of the PEMTEs in Ohio write for publication or are actively involved with research—behaviors shared with other physical educators, education professors, and many university professors. PEMTEs appear to attend more state and national meetings than do other physical educators or other university professors. The extent of involvement at such conferences, however, is unknown. Implications of the behaviors described are discussed, and conclusions are drawn on the basis of the reported data.

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Carmen Peiró-Velert, Pere Molina-Alventosa, David Kirk and José Devís-Devís

This paper examines teachers’ use of printed curriculum materials (PCM) during physical education (PE) instruction in Spanish secondary schools and the role they play in the enacted curriculum and in the construction of pedagogical knowledge. Three hundred and ten participants (mean age: 37.7 ± 8.7) responded to an interview-questionnaire on teachers’ pedagogical roles and tasks linked to PCM in PE. Results indicated that while PCM were used very frequently for registering students’ attendance and recording observational notes from lessons, textbooks were less and infrequently used. Both, ‘materials for data registration’ and ‘student textbook’ showed the highest and lowest level of teachers’ satisfaction, respectively. ‘Student diary’ was the PCM used more by female and less experienced teachers than their counterparts, while textbooks were used more by experienced teachers than those with less years of teaching experience. Over fifty percent of teachers considered PCM to be ‘Quite important’ because they facilitate students to study theoretical knowledge, investigate and be creative. The paper discusses the contribution of teachers’ use of PCM to the enacted curriculum and their participation in the social construction of PE knowledge through Bernstein’s theory of pedagogic device. In particular, it indicates that PE teachers are relatively independent from external agencies in curriculum development and participate in the social construction of pedagogical knowledge. Female and less experienced teachers’ use of PCM facilitated students’ participation in the construction of knowledge, which suggests weaker framing of the teaching-learning process..

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Zachary Wahl-Alexander and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

-Activity Multi-Activity Evaluation methods Attendance and Participation, Cognitive Test, Process Evaluation Attendance and Participation, Cognitive Test, Process Evaluation, Product Evaluation Attendance and Participation, Cognitive Test, Process Evaluation, Product Evaluation Attendance and Participation

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Michael A. Hemphill and Tom Martinek

reflecting on values-based physical activity lessons. Two pairs of youth leaders had consistent weekly attendance in the program (Grace and Vance; Martin and Anthony), while one pair and the team of three often had one member missing from the program (Mick and Brett; Zoe, Logan, and Lisa). All participants

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Michel Milistetd, Pierre Trudel, Steven Rynne, Isabel Maria Ribeiro Mesquita and Juarez Vieira do Nascimento

, instructors use strategies (often based on grades) to control learning environment: mandatory attendance, penalties for missed deadlines or being late, bonus points for …, etc. - Extrinsic motivation predominates - Because students can learn to be more responsible for their learning, instructors will co