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Cassandra J. de Lacy-Vawdon, Ruth Klein, Joanna Schwarzman, Genevieve Nolan, Renee de Silva, David Menzies and Ben J. Smith

investigation, within program delivery, of the range of factors that facilitate attendance and adherence by older participants. A systematic review of barriers and facilitators of falls-prevention programs, including falls-prevention classes and general PA classes, described social support, PA intensity, self

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Nicholas M. Watanabe, Grace Yan, Brian P. Soebbing and Wantong Fu

pollution and attendance at soccer matches in China’s Chinese Super League (CSL), where deteriorating air quality in recent years presents everyday challenges for urban activities ( Ebenstein, Fan, Greenstone, He, & Zhou, 2017 ). In places like Beijing, for example, the average daily air pollution between

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Seung-Youn Hong, Susan Hughes and Thomas Prohaska

Background:

Many different constructs are used currently in the literature to assess exercise adherence. This study examined whether the same or different variables predict exercise attendance and exercise completion among sedentary older adults.

Methods:

Thirty-seven randomized control trials were selected from articles published between 1980 and 2000 that tested exercise interventions for sedentary older adults. Block-entry, weighted, hierarchical meta-regression analyses were conducted.

Results:

Different factors predicted attendance and completion. Group-based (P < .05) and resistance exercise (P < .1) predicted higher attendance rates than individual-based and aerobic exercise. In contrast, facility-based exercise was associated with higher completion rates than home-based exercise (P < .1).

Conclusions:

Results show that completing a program is not synonymous with good attendance. Program designers need to consider different strategies to boost both of these rates that need to be maximized to best benefit program participants.

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John Charles Bradbury

Soccer (MLS) began operating in 1996 following the United States hosting the 1994 FIFA World Cup. The league struggled during its first decade of operation, fluctuating between 10 and 12 clubs, with an average attendance that stagnated at around 15,000 spectators per game (see Figure  1 ). Since that

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Scott Tainsky, Brian M. Mills, Zainab Hans and Kyunghee Lee

Michael Jordan alone generated over $50 million in additional road attendance revenue. Thus, it is clear that the question of opponent player externalities in sports is both theoretically and practically relevant to sport management. Location-based spillover effects have also been demonstrated in a number

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Adam Karg, Heath McDonald and Civilai Leckie

Sport consumption is defined as “the manner in which a spectator interacts with the witnessed action that occurs during an event” ( Madrigal, 2006 , p. 268). Professional sports, like many products, are consumed via different channels. Live attendance is the traditional way to view sports, but

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Colin B. Shore, Gill Hubbard, Trish Gorely, Robert Polson, Angus Hunter and Stuart D. Galloway

available to allow for components associated with effectiveness to be replicated in future schemes. Factors such as reporting of referral uptake, attendance, and adherence, and the behavior change techniques (BCTs) underpinning ERS uptake and adherence are key components to understand for the following

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Brian Goff, Dennis P. Wilson, W. Currie Martin and Brandon Spurlock

Our study examines the impact of the transition from NCAA Football Championship Series (FCS) participation to Football Bowl Series (FBS) participation on demand for university football. The primary empirical analysis uses 23 schools that transitioned to the FBS between 1987 and 2013 to examine attendance effects. We first examine the change as a type of event study and estimate the impact in a short run “transition window” of the 5 years leading up to and after the transition. We then estimate the long run impact of membership on annual attendance over a period extending from 5 years before transition through 2013 for all transition schools. Finally, we estimate impact on an alternative sample that includes a control group of top performing FCS schools that have not transitioned to FBS. The results derived from these panel regressions indicate a substantial positive impact on per game attendance over the transition period and for many years beyond the transition. (JEL codes: L83, L29.)

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Hal Hansen and Roger Gauthier

Forty attendance items comprised a questionnaire using a Likert 5-point scale to describe the relative importance of each factor from the YÍew of the following sample of 117: CFL (8), NFL (28), NHL (21), NBA (23), M1SL (11); American Baseball (14), and National Baseball (12). It was hypothesized that no difference exists between leagues on attendance factors; on factor categories; between winning, moderately winning, and losing teams; and between indoor and outdoor leagues. ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for significant differences. Factor analysis using the principal component model followed by Varimax rotation was applied to the 40 items. The response rate was 46%. Significant differences resulted. Factor analysis derived 10 factor categories. Baseball and the NFL accounted for most of the differences, followed by the MISL. Items generating differences were scheduling, team roster quality, price, forms of entertainment competition, and convenience for fans. This study provides current status, factor categories, and preliminary trends that point to the need for former study with a larger sample.

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Fabio Lucidi, Caterina Grano, Claudio Barbaranelli and Cristiano Violani

The present study evaluated whether, and to what extent, the constructs implicated in the theory of planned behavior could predict behavioral intention to exercise and exercise-class attendance of older adults (age 65–90 years) already enrolled in a physical activity program. The study also evaluated whether including self-efficacy judgments might improve the predictive capacity of the model. Participants (N = 1,095) were randomly sampled Italian volunteers from exercise classes for older adults. First, they completed questionnaires assessing the above-mentioned constructs. Then, class attendance was recorded during the following 3 months. Results indicated a substantial correspondence between the model and the data. Perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy were the strongest predictors of behavioral intention, whereas attitudes and subjective norms only partially contributed to its prediction. The inclusion of self-efficacy improved the predictive capacity of the overall model. Finally, results showed a weak relation between behavioral intention and attendance rate in physical activity sessions.