pollution and attendance at soccer matches in China’s Chinese Super League (CSL), where deteriorating air quality in recent years presents everyday challenges for urban activities ( Ebenstein, Fan, Greenstone, He, & Zhou, 2017 ). In places like Beijing, for example, the average daily air pollution between
Nicholas M. Watanabe, Grace Yan, Brian P. Soebbing and Wantong Fu
John Charles Bradbury
Soccer (MLS) began operating in 1996 following the United States hosting the 1994 FIFA World Cup. The league struggled during its first decade of operation, fluctuating between 10 and 12 clubs, with an average attendance that stagnated at around 15,000 spectators per game (see Figure 1 ). Since that
Scott Tainsky, Brian M. Mills, Zainab Hans and Kyunghee Lee
Michael Jordan alone generated over $50 million in additional road attendance revenue. Thus, it is clear that the question of opponent player externalities in sports is both theoretically and practically relevant to sport management. Location-based spillover effects have also been demonstrated in a number
Adam Karg, Heath McDonald and Civilai Leckie
Sport consumption is defined as “the manner in which a spectator interacts with the witnessed action that occurs during an event” ( Madrigal, 2006 , p. 268). Professional sports, like many products, are consumed via different channels. Live attendance is the traditional way to view sports, but
Brian Goff, Dennis P. Wilson, W. Currie Martin and Brandon Spurlock
Our study examines the impact of the transition from NCAA Football Championship Series (FCS) participation to Football Bowl Series (FBS) participation on demand for university football. The primary empirical analysis uses 23 schools that transitioned to the FBS between 1987 and 2013 to examine attendance effects. We first examine the change as a type of event study and estimate the impact in a short run “transition window” of the 5 years leading up to and after the transition. We then estimate the long run impact of membership on annual attendance over a period extending from 5 years before transition through 2013 for all transition schools. Finally, we estimate impact on an alternative sample that includes a control group of top performing FCS schools that have not transitioned to FBS. The results derived from these panel regressions indicate a substantial positive impact on per game attendance over the transition period and for many years beyond the transition. (JEL codes: L83, L29.)
Hal Hansen and Roger Gauthier
Forty attendance items comprised a questionnaire using a Likert 5-point scale to describe the relative importance of each factor from the YÍew of the following sample of 117: CFL (8), NFL (28), NHL (21), NBA (23), M1SL (11); American Baseball (14), and National Baseball (12). It was hypothesized that no difference exists between leagues on attendance factors; on factor categories; between winning, moderately winning, and losing teams; and between indoor and outdoor leagues. ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for significant differences. Factor analysis using the principal component model followed by Varimax rotation was applied to the 40 items. The response rate was 46%. Significant differences resulted. Factor analysis derived 10 factor categories. Baseball and the NFL accounted for most of the differences, followed by the MISL. Items generating differences were scheduling, team roster quality, price, forms of entertainment competition, and convenience for fans. This study provides current status, factor categories, and preliminary trends that point to the need for former study with a larger sample.
James J. Zhang, Dale G. Pease and Dennis W. Smith
This study assessed the relationship between broadcasting and the attendance of minor league hockey games in terms of 5 media forms: cable television broadcasting, commercial television broadcasting, radio broadcasting, broadcasters, and overall broadcasting media. A random sample of spectators (N = 2,225) responded to a survey on attendance level and media use conducted in the arena during the intermissions of games from 6 second-half 1994-1995 season home games of an International Hockey League (ML) team. CM-square, f-test, and regression analyses revealed that viewing home games on cable television and away games on commercial television, listening to games on radio, and the quality of television and cable broadcasters were all positively associated with attendance, with approximately 6-11% game attendance variance explained. It is concluded that the current broadcasting arrangement is positively related to game attendance in providing information for and increasing the interests of spectators.
Timothy D. DeSchriver and Paul E. Jensen
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between spectator attendance at NCAA Division II football contests and selected determinants by estimating multiple economic demand models. The two primary determinants analyzed were winning percentage and promotional activity. Demand models were estimated using OLS and fixed-effect regression analysis. The results suggested that both current and previous year winning percentages are positively related to attendance. Furthermore, it is shown that the effect of previous season winning on attendance diminishes while the effect of current season winning increases as the season progresses. The results also indicated that promotional activities, the number of enrolled students, and market competition significantly affected attendance. Overall, the demand models explained between 37 and 70 percent of the variation in spectator attendance. The findings of this study may aid Division II athletic administrators who are attempting to increase revenues by attracting additional spectators to small-college football contests.
John P. Marcum and Theodore N. Greenstein
This study examines game-by-game attendance data for one National League team (St. Louis Cardinals) and one American League team (Texas Rangers) for the 1982 season to explore factors related to attendance at professional sporting events. Multiple regression analyses indicate that the major factors affecting attendance are day of the week, opponent, and type of promotion. Recent and season-long performance measures for both the home and visiting teams have relatively little effect on daily attendance.
R. Saylor Breckenridge and Pat Rubio Goldsmith
We examine the effect of the visibility of African American, Latino, and Jewish baseball players on attendance at Major League Baseball games between 1930 and 1961. We invoke the sociological concepts of “social distance,” “spectacle,” and “group threat” and incorporate data focusing on the era of integration to expand on previous research in this arena. Notably, African American and Latino player visibility—but not that of other groups—is revealed to increase attendance at games. This effect weakens for losing teams and in cities with relatively larger minority populations. The findings suggest a synthesis of theories is possible.