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Cassandra J. de Lacy-Vawdon, Ruth Klein, Joanna Schwarzman, Genevieve Nolan, Renee de Silva, David Menzies and Ben J. Smith

investigation, within program delivery, of the range of factors that facilitate attendance and adherence by older participants. A systematic review of barriers and facilitators of falls-prevention programs, including falls-prevention classes and general PA classes, described social support, PA intensity, self

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Seung-Youn Hong, Susan Hughes and Thomas Prohaska

Background:

Many different constructs are used currently in the literature to assess exercise adherence. This study examined whether the same or different variables predict exercise attendance and exercise completion among sedentary older adults.

Methods:

Thirty-seven randomized control trials were selected from articles published between 1980 and 2000 that tested exercise interventions for sedentary older adults. Block-entry, weighted, hierarchical meta-regression analyses were conducted.

Results:

Different factors predicted attendance and completion. Group-based (P < .05) and resistance exercise (P < .1) predicted higher attendance rates than individual-based and aerobic exercise. In contrast, facility-based exercise was associated with higher completion rates than home-based exercise (P < .1).

Conclusions:

Results show that completing a program is not synonymous with good attendance. Program designers need to consider different strategies to boost both of these rates that need to be maximized to best benefit program participants.

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Colin B. Shore, Gill Hubbard, Trish Gorely, Robert Polson, Angus Hunter and Stuart D. Galloway

available to allow for components associated with effectiveness to be replicated in future schemes. Factors such as reporting of referral uptake, attendance, and adherence, and the behavior change techniques (BCTs) underpinning ERS uptake and adherence are key components to understand for the following

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Fabio Lucidi, Caterina Grano, Claudio Barbaranelli and Cristiano Violani

The present study evaluated whether, and to what extent, the constructs implicated in the theory of planned behavior could predict behavioral intention to exercise and exercise-class attendance of older adults (age 65–90 years) already enrolled in a physical activity program. The study also evaluated whether including self-efficacy judgments might improve the predictive capacity of the model. Participants (N = 1,095) were randomly sampled Italian volunteers from exercise classes for older adults. First, they completed questionnaires assessing the above-mentioned constructs. Then, class attendance was recorded during the following 3 months. Results indicated a substantial correspondence between the model and the data. Perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy were the strongest predictors of behavioral intention, whereas attitudes and subjective norms only partially contributed to its prediction. The inclusion of self-efficacy improved the predictive capacity of the overall model. Finally, results showed a weak relation between behavioral intention and attendance rate in physical activity sessions.

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Kimberley A. Dawson, Lawrence R. Brawley and James E. Maddux

Many researchers in psychology and physical activity have discussed the overlap among control constructs in various theories. Skinner (1996) proposed an integrative control framework based on an agent-means-ends distinction that offered comparisons among and more explicit measurement of 3 control constructs—control, capacity, and strategy beliefs. No study in the exercise domain has yet empirically examined these advantages. This study evaluated Skinner’s framework relative to their contribution to predicting exercise attendance. A prospective design was used to consider the potential change in the nature of the relationships. High correlations (range r = .52–.88) at 2 time points in the exercise program suggested overlap among control constructs when using Skinner’s measurement procedures. Only capacity beliefs and behavioral intention were significantly related to exercise attendance (model R 2 adjusted = .11 and .16, p = .03 and .01, respectively, at onset and midprogram).Adjusted The findings do not support Skinner’s contentions but are similar to previous findings in the exercise literature.

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Jo Weber and Eleanor H. Wertheim

Upon becoming members at a community gymnasium, 55 women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control, self-monitoring of gym attendance, or self-monitoring of attendance plus extra staff attention. The effect of these interventions on gym attendance over 3 months was examined. A 3 X 4 (Group X Time Phase, first 3 weeks to last 3 weeks) ANOVA indicated that the main effects for group and time predicted attendance at the gym. Attendance during the first 3 weeks was significantly greater than attendance thereafter. The control subjects attended significantly less than the self-monitoring subjects at all phases. Further research is suggested toward using self-monitoring, staff support, and periodic progress feedback for increasing program adherence. In addition, self-motivation and body fat percent were assessed initially. Correlations between these two variables and attendance failed to support their usefulness as predictors at any time phase.

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Kristiann Heesch, Louise C. Mâsse, Ralph F. Frankowski and Andrea L. Dunn

Background:

Interventions that teach strategies for integrating physical activity into a person’s daily routine are becoming more common. These interventions have been found to increase physical activity behavior, although the increases have not been large. The small to moderate changes in physical activity can result from participants having insufficient adherence to the intervention protocol to produce an intervention effect. Given that adherence is likely to affect the power to find a treatment effect, it should be tracked. This study examined changes in adherence over 6 months for a lifestyle physical activity intervention.

Methods:

Participants were 244 sedentary adults who took part in the Project PRIME lifestyle physical activity intervention. Adherence was assessed separately for a group-based intervention (PRIME G) and a telephone- and mail-based intervention (PRIME C). Markers of adherence were completion of homework, self-monitoring of physical activity, attendance at class (PRIME G only), and completion of monthly telephone calls (PRIME C only). Changes over time in adherence markers and differences between intervention groups for homework completion and adherence to self-monitoring were modeled with generalized estimating equations (GEE).

Results:

The probability of attending class, completing the telephone calls, and completing the homework decreased significantly over 6 months. Participants only self-monitored an average of 5 to 6 days each calendar month. Participants in the group-based intervention were more likely than those in the telephone- and mail-delivered intervention to complete the homework throughout the study.

Conclusions:

The findings suggest that individuals are willing to adhere with a telephone call protocol over 6 months. They are less willing to complete homework and attend class over this same time period. Most are not willing to self-monitor their lifestyle physical activities more than a few days a month.

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Emily M. D’Agostino, Sophia E. Day, Kevin J. Konty, Michael Larkin, Subir Saha and Katarzyna Wyka

/ethnicity and high household and area poverty. 15 , 16 Most research on the relationship between fitness and attendance in youth draws from cross-sectional data. 1 , 2 , 20 , 21 Although findings support a fitness–absenteeism relationship, multiple years of prospective, child-level data are needed to examine

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Trisha S. Gavin and Anita M. Myers

The article profiles older adults who join Tai Chi and line-dancing beginner classes. Enrollment, attendance, and dropout patterns of 41 classes from 8 recreation and senior centers and 4 Taoist Tai Chi societies were tracked over a full calendar year. Enrollment was highest in the fall. Average attendance over the 8- to 12-week sessions was 72% for Tai Chi and 68% for line dancing; average dropout rates were 23% and 10%, respectively. Entry surveys and exit interviews were completed by 221 and 107 participants, respectively. Older adults who join these community classes tend to be predominantly women, Caucasian, in their mid-60s, relatively healthy, and physically active. Most in Tai Chi joined for fitness and health, whereas many line dancers joined for social reasons. Although the classes were designated as beginner classes, participants varied in level of experience. Continued participation was related to expectations, past experience, and perceived ease of learning the movements.

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Michael A. Becker and Jerry Suls

Two studies examined the relationship between objective, social, and temporal performance indices and fan support of major league baseball teams. In the first study, per game attendance figures for 22 major league teams were regressed on the performance indices. Attendance was found to be positively related to objective and social performance and negatively related to temporal performance. These results were replicated in the second study when season ticket sales for five major league teams was the dependent variable. Although the objective and social results were consistent with expectations, the negative relationship between temporal performance and fan support was unexpected. Primacy effects and regression toward the mean are offered as explanations for this latter finding. The results of both studies are considered in terms of the optimum marketing strategy for professional team sports.