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Ali Brian, An De Meester, Aija Klavina, J. Megan Irwin, Sally Taunton, Adam Pennell and Lauren J. Lieberman

competence increase the likelihood that one is autonomously motivated, while lower levels of competence satisfaction and perceived motor competence are more likely to relate to controlled motivation or even amotivation ( Deci & Ryan, 2000 ). Autonomous motivation is the optimal level of motivation sought as

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Athanasios Papaioannou, Dimitrios Milosis and Christos Gotzaridis

, Kaittani, Derri, & Kioumourtzoglou, 2016 for a recent review). This study seeks to fill the gap, focusing on the effects of the integration of physics concepts in PE on students’ autonomous motivation, which is a major determinant of the adaptive outcomes in education and promotion of wellness ( Ryan

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Cindy Rutten, Filip Boen and Jan Seghers

Based on the self-determination theory, this study investigated the mediating role of the satisfaction of the three psychological needs (need for competence, relatedness and autonomy) in the relation between need support from the physical education (PE) teacher and autonomous motivation to engage in PE and between the physical school environment and autonomous motivation to engage in PE. Data were collected from 2418 6th grade children. Analyses were performed using bootstrapping. The results showed that perceptions of competence and autonomy mediated the relation between need support from the PE teacher and autonomous motivation. Moreover, the perception of autonomy also mediated the relation between the physical school environment and autonomous motivation. These findings suggest that not only the PE teacher but also the physical school environment is able to promote autonomous motivation by satisfying the need for autonomy.

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Cindy Rutten, Filip Boen, Nathalie Vissers and Jan Seghers

Based on Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), this study tested whether changes in autonomous motivation toward physical education (AMPE) during the transition from elementary to secondary school can be predicted by changes in perceived need support from the physical education (PE) teacher and perceived physical school environment. Self-reported data were gathered from 472 Flemish (northern part of Belgium) students in 6th grade (2009) and again in 8th grade (2011). Mediation analyses showed that an increase in perceived need support from the PE teacher was related to an increase in AMPE (boys: β = .42; girls: β = .50). In boys, this relation was mediated by changes in perceived competence (β = .08). In girls, this relation was mediated by changes in perceived autonomy (β = .12), perceived competence (β = .14), and perceived relatedness (β = .05). This study shows that PE teachers should be need-supportive to maintain a good quality of motivation in students.

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Yew Meng How, Peter Whipp, James Dimmock and Ben Jackson

This study examined whether the provision of choice in physical education (PE) enhanced students’ autonomous motivation, perceived autonomy support, and physical activity (PA) levels, relative to a “regular PE” control group. Students from eight intact high school PE classes (N = 257, Mage = 12.91) were randomly assigned to control (i.e., four classes) and intervention (i.e., four classes) conditions. Students in the intervention group were given a unique opportunity to choose their preferred participatory role in their PE units, while control students participated in normal teacher-led PE, and data were collected over a 15-week program (i.e., three units of five weeks each). The results indicated that a lack of choice in PE aligned with less positive perceptions of autonomy support among students within the control group, compared with their counterparts in the intervention group. In some choice formats, students exhibited significantly higher PA levels than students who undertook normal PE. These findings indicate that offering choice in high school PE lessons may encourage perceptions of autonomy support and levels of in-class physical activity.

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Sami Yli-Piipari, Todd Layne, Janet Hinson and Carol Irwin

extrinsic motivation (HMIEM; Vallerand, 2007 ), and the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991 ). Proposition 1 is drawn from the SDT ( Deci & Ryan, 1985 , 2000 ) with the hypothesis that perceived support for autonomous motivation from social agents (e.g., teachers) toward school-based PA (e

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Yubing Wang and Ang Chen

tasks. These tasks are presented to students as questions/problems associated with the PAs being experienced to facilitate their knowledge construction. Finally, the content, structure, and instructional system of this curriculum are designed to elicit high levels of autonomous motivation among students

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Chelsee A. Shortt, Collin A. Webster, Richard J. Keegan, Cate A. Egan and Ali S. Brian

movement through daily PA 0 0 4 14 Ability to participate in PA by oneself 0 0 5 13 Participating in PA autonomously 0 0 5 13 Majority agreement Identifying with movement as a part of one’s self 0 1 2 15 Transfer of motor skills to variety of contexts 0 1 4 13 Internal motivation for PA 0 1 4 13 Perceived

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Robin S. Vealey, Eric Martin, Angela Coppola, Rose Marie Ward and Jacob Chamberlin

autonomous to controlled forms of motivation. The most autonomous form of motivation is when individuals engage in activities for pleasure or genuine interest—this is known as intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation can be participating in an activity for the pleasure of learning about it (intrinsic

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Jing Dong Liu and Pak-Kwong Chung

others, and maintaining a sense of belonging ( Deci & Ryan, 2002 ). When these needs are satisfied, individuals experience feelings of need satisfaction and therefore feel autonomous in their actions, competent in their activities, and connected to others in their environment. By contrast, when their