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Juha Heikkala

In the practical discourse of sport the focus is on the individual athlete as the autonomous and independent locus of action. This discourse is deconstructed from a, poststructuralist perspective. It is argued that in sport the disciplinary techniques of the body and self, as depicted by Michel Foucault, are both an instrument and an effect of competing. Disciplinary and normalizing practices such as bodily exercises or filling in a training diary are instruments for athletes to transcend their current performance, which is the core of the logic of competing. Furthermore, disciplining is the outcome of this “rationale” to excel. Giddens’s notion of structure is used to explicate the structure of competing. Yet his Cartesian conception of agents as knowledgeable is qualified, that is, within the practices of training and the structure of competing, some consequences of these practices escape athletes’ intention. The constitution of athletes’ subjectivity and even the consequences of the process of competing may be beyond their control.

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Douglas Booth

contested practices and beliefs. Gruneau leaps forward to the nineteenth century in Chapter 2. Here he argues that a set of fragmentary ideas about athletics in ancient Greece, and barbaric spectacles in ancient Rome, were resynthesized to produce a view of sport as an autonomous cultural practice with its

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Garrett Bunyak

, 2014 ). Then, I discuss prior research on dog agility and explore Donna Haraway’s critique of notions of responsibility that exclude non-human animals from ethical practice by constructing humans as autonomous, rational, superior beings ( Haraway, 2008 ). Haraway critiques these portrayals by

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Hans Erik Næss

financially self-sufficient. Later on, as sport grew through the globalization process, it was recognized that GSGBs and national governing bodies in general should be autonomous from political and religious authorities. 10 The globalization of sports and the development of global media, however, in the next

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Noora J. Ronkainen, Amanda Shuman and Lin Xu

own decisions; they are autonomous and self-regulating in their “freedom to upgrade their bodies and minds responsibly” ( Greenhalgh & Winckler, 2005 , p. 217). These urbanites are, in other words, focused on building their status in society by increasing their embodied cultural capital through

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Amy Whitehead, Kanayo Umeh, Barbara Walsh, Eleanor Whittaker and Colum Cronin

to be more autonomous and self-determined, and where an intrinsic value is put on the importance of the activity ( Pelletier, et al., 2002 ). In comparison, males were found to score higher in external regulation, where behavior is regulated through external means such as rewards ( Pelletier, et

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Andrew Hammond, Ruth Jeanes, Dawn Penney and Deana Leahy

neoliberal-able project to produce the capable, autonomous and self-sufficient human subject ( Goodley, 2014 ; Goodley et al., 2014 ). Under conditions of neoliberal-ableism, that swimmers with disability were positioned as defective. Coaches associated success with occasions when their athletes with

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Alexander J. Bedard, Kevin A. Bigelman, Lynn R. Fielitz, Jeffrey D. Coelho, William B. Kobbe, Renard O. Barone, Nicholas H. Gist and John E. Palmer

the autonomous stage of motor learning ( Schmidt & Wrisberg, 2004 ). Once skills have been introduced and refined through these instructional techniques, students are pitted against each other in free sparring. This requires the most complex application of the motor skills taught throughout the course

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Emma Seal and Emma Sherry

constrained in particular contexts, which is “premised upon the distancing of an autonomous interiority from external social forces” (p. 35), but is constituted within relationships as they unfold across space and time. This breaks down the dualistic version of structure/agency and recognizes they construct

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Kristi A. Allain

good health and stay autonomous” ( “Exercise for Healthy Aging,” n.d. , para. 1), while a science radio show on the CBC, Canada’s public broadcaster, claims exercise “is the best anti-aging therapy” ( McDonald, 2018 , para. 1). Implicit in these attitudes is an understanding that aging and dependence