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Ian M. Taylor and Chris Lonsdale

Using basic psychological needs theory (BPNT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) as our guiding framework, we explored cultural differences in the relationships among physical education students’ perceptions of teacher autonomy support, psychological need satisfaction, subjective vitality and effort in class. Seven hundred and fifteen students (age range from 13 to 15 years) from the U.K. and Hong Kong, China, completed a multisection inventory during a timetabled physical education class. Multilevel analyses revealed that the relationships among autonomy support, subjective vitality and effort were mediated by students’ perceptions of psychological need satisfaction. The relationship between autonomy support and perceptions of competence was stronger in the Chinese sample, compared with the U.K. sample. In addition, the relationship between perceptions of relatedness and effort was not significant in the Chinese students. The findings generally support the pan-cultural utility of BPNT and imply that a teacher-created autonomy supportive environment may promote positive student experiences in both cultures.

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Gert-Jan De Muynck, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Jochen Delrue, Nathalie Aelterman, Leen Haerens and Bart Soenens

; Vansteenkiste, Niemiec, & Soenens, 2010 ), feedback will yield a motivating effect if it supports athletes’ basic psychological needs for competence (i.e., feeling effective) and autonomy (i.e., experiencing a sense of volition), as the satisfaction of these needs nurtures intrinsic motivation ( Deci, Koestner

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Nicholas S. Washburn, K. Andrew R. Richards and Oleg A. Sinelnikov

, anchored at one end by those that are highly autonomy-supportive and at the other by those that are highly controlling ( Reeve, 2009 ). Autonomy-supportive teachers generally act in ways that support students’ innate desire for psychological need satisfaction (PNS; Reeve, 2009 ). In application, these

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Jeeyoon Kim and Jeffrey D. James

spectating, and sport media viewing can be such activities. Therefore, need fulfillment is adopted as a key construct to help explain SWB effects in sport consumption. We posit that psychological needs for detachment-recovery, autonomy, achievement, and belonging can be fulfilled through sport consumption

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Lindsay E. Kipp, Nicole D. Bolter and Alison Phillips Reichter

athletes’ well-being, namely self-esteem and healthy eating patterns, we used self-determination theory (SDT [ 25 , 26 ]), which states that the social context influences various aspects of well-being via satisfaction of 3 psychological needs: perceived competence, autonomy, and relatedness. In line with

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Kimberly Long, Shawn Meredith and Gerald W. Bell

Autonomic dysreflexia (AD), which occurs in individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) above T-6, is caused by an exaggerated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response to a noxious stimulus. Blood pressure (BP) elevation is a chief symptom of acute AD; this rise in BP makes AD potentially life threatening. Autonomic dysreflexia is also referred to as autonomic hyperreflexia. For this discussion, autonomic dysreflexia will be the term used. It is estimated that approximately 90% of competitive athletes with quadriplegia have intentionally induced AD in order to enhance performance (Burnham et al., 1994). This practice, which is called “boosting,” appears to be an effective, but potentially dangerous, performance enhancement technique. Individuals who work with athletes with SCI above T-6 should be aware of the symptoms, dangers, and treatment of AD, as well as the practice of boosting in order to ensure the safety of these athletes.

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Johannes Raabe, Katrin Schmidt, Johannes Carl and Oliver Höner

-being; Cheval, Chalabaev, Quested, Courvoisier, & Sarrazin, 2017 ). According to Ryan and Deci ( 2017 ), these positive outcomes can be nurtured by satisfying the inherent basic psychological needs of competence (i.e., feeling capable of being physical active); autonomy (i.e., having a certain amount of choice

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Vinícius Y.B. Suetake, Emerson Franchini, Bruna T.C. Saraiva, Anne K.F. da Silva, Aline F.B. Bernardo, Rayane L. Gomes, Luiz Carlos M. Vanderlei and Diego G.D. Christofaro

The autonomic nervous system plays a fundamental role in regulating many body systems. Through afferent and efferent stimuli, it is able to modulate the body according to its momentary need ( 38 ). The ability of the autonomic nervous system to modulate heart rate beat to beat can be assessed by

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Júlio A. Costa, João Brito, Fábio Y. Nakamura, Eduardo M. Oliveira, Ovidio P. Costa and António N. Rebelo

In fact, monitoring training-related cardiac autonomic responses has been facilitated by the use of ultra-short-term HRV measurement after waking. 8 In spite of its usefulness, this method does not allow analysis of the time course of cardiac autonomic recovery postexercise or quantification of HRV

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Meghan H. McDonough and Peter R.E. Crocker

Self-determination theory suggests that when psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness are met, participants experience more self-determined types of motivation and more positive outcomes. Limited research has examined this mediational role of self-determined motivation in adult physical activity participants, and very few studies have included assessments of relatedness. This study tested the hypothesis that self-determined motivation would mediate the relationship between psychological need fulfilment and affective and behavioral outcomes. Adult dragon boaters (N = 558) between the ages of 19 and 83 completed a questionnaire on motivational aspects of dragon boating. Competence, relatedness, and autonomy all significantly predicted self-determined motivation, but self-determined motivation only partially mediated their relationship with positive and negative affect. These findings demonstrate the importance of all three needs in adult activity motivation and suggest that the relationships between needs, self-determination, and outcomes may be complex.